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The Harrat 'Uwayrid, located in NW Saudi Arabia along the Bedouin pilgrim route to Syria, contains young basaltic scoria and tuff cones and associated lava fields. The massive alkali olivine basaltic lava field reaches a height of 1920 m; it extends about 125 km in a NW-SE direction and is contiguous with the Harrat ar Rahat volcanic field to the NW. The Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van Pandang, 1963a) indicated that an eruption in about 640 CE at Harrat 'Uwayrid may have been from either Hala-'l-Bedr or Hala-'l-'Ischia, or both. Bedouin legends say that Hala-'l-Bedr erupted fire and stones, killing herdsmen and their cattle and sheep.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|0640 (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Anthropology||Hala-'l-Bedr, Hala-'l-'Ishqua or both|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|'Uweirizh, Harrat el- | 'Awayridh, Harrat el- | Nar, Harrat en-|
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|'Asi, Hala-'l-||Tuff cone||1500 m||27° 5' 0" N||37° 21' 0" E|
|Bedr, Hala-'l-||Cone||1500 m||27° 15' 0" N||37° 12' 0" E|
|'Enaz, Hala-'l-||Cone||1900 m|
|Tuff cone||1700 m||27° 35' 0" N||36° 48' 0" E|
|The large dark wedge-shaped area pointing to the lower right near the center of this Space Shuttle image is Harrat 'Uwayrid, a major volcanic field in NW Saudi Arabia. Harrat 'Uwayrid lies on the Bedouin pilgrim route to Syria and contains young basaltic scoria and tuff cones. Bedouin legends say that Hala-'l-Bedr erupted fire and stones in 640 AD, killing herdsmen and their cattle and sheep. Another volcanic field, Harrat ar Rahah (upper left), lies to the NW, left of the small light-colored desert area at the upper left-center.
NASA Space Shuttle image STS37-152-84, 1991 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Brown G F, Schmidt D L, Huffman A C Jr, 1984. Geology of the Arabian Peninsula western shield area. U S Geol Surv, Open-File Rpt, 84:203: 1-217.
Neumann van Padang M, 1963. Arabia and the Indian Ocean. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 16: 1-64.