Nyamuragira

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 1.408°S
  • 29.2°E

  • 3058 m
    10030 ft

  • 223020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

29 January-4 February 2014

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January showed a gas-and-steam plume rising from Nyamuragira.

Source: NASA Earth Observatory



 Available Weekly Reports


2014: January
2013: July
2012: January
2011: November
2010: January
2009: April | December
2006: November
2005: June | October
2004: May
2003: February | April | December
2002: February | July | August | October
2001: January | February | March


29 January-4 February 2014

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January showed a gas-and-steam plume rising from Nyamuragira.

Source: NASA Earth Observatory


31 July-6 August 2013

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 July showed a dense, white plume rising from Nyamuragira likely consisting of large amounts of water vapor.

Source: NASA Earth Observatory


25 January-31 January 2012

The VolcanoDiscovery Team observed the fissure eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November 2011 during 22-25 January 2012 from the newly formed cinder cones located about 10 km E of the summit crater. They reported three coalescent cones with the largest cone containing a small lava lake. The lake ejected spatter every few seconds as high as 200 m above the summit; individual bombs reached the base of the cone. Lava flows from the vent extended several kilometers N. Numerous small breakouts formed secondary flows, and a large breakout about 2 km N of the cone fed a large lava flow about 20 m wide. Burning forests were reported to the NNE.

Source: VolcanoDiscovery


11 January-17 January 2012

According to observations by scientists from the Afar Consortium Project, the fissure eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November 2011 continued on 8 January 2012. The initial scoria cone appeared inactive and second cone formed to the N of the first cone. Both cones were about 300 m high. The second cone was extremely active during the duration of the observations (about 15 hours) with fire fountains over twice the height of the cone; lava flowed N. The observers, about 1.5 km away, felt the heat from the eruption as well as lapilli fall.

Source: Afar Rift Consortium


4 January-10 January 2012

Satellite imagery acquired on 3 January from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed an active lava flow to the NE of the central vent over the fissure located 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater. A sulfur dioxide-rich plume was also detected.

Source: NASA Earth Observatory


16 November-22 November 2011

On 18 November, Virunga National Park reported that lava flows from the eruption along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater had possibly stalled. An observer aboard an overflight a few days before noted that the lava did not appear to have moved any further N. A photo taken from the Rumangabo headquarters (7.5 km NE of the eruption site) on 16 November showed a tall cinder cone with lava fountains rising above the rim.

Source: Virunga National Park


9 November-15 November 2011

According to GORISK (an initiative of the National Museum of Natural History, Luxembourg and Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium), the eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November, after two days of intense seismic activity, was located along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of the main crater, close to one of the 1989 eruption sites.

Virunga National Park staff had previously been observing the eruption from a hilltop in Rumangabo, but on 9 November the staff and rangers traveled to the site. After a 3-hour hike, the team viewed the eruption from the S and noted roaring and lava fountains, as well as thunder and lightning. The observers also noted that the ground was covered by black pumice. On 11 November about 100 people, including staff, rangers, carpenters, porters, and volcanologists, traveled to a similar but safer location to set up a camp for visitors. The eruption site was described as a flat area with a 500-1,000-m-long fissure, oriented perpendicular to the Albertine (Western) rift. Lava fountains rose as high as 300 m above a cinder cone. Slow-moving lava traveled N.

GORISK noted that radar images acquired on 11 November showed the largest deformation ever detected by the method (InSAR) since the early 1990's over Nyamuragira. A very preliminary analysis of the observed deformation suggested an affected area of more than 250 square kilometers. The ground rose more than 50 cm at the eruptive site where the spatter cone was developing. Another 15 cm of deformation was detected within the Nyamuragira caldera accompanied by deflation on the flanks. Satellite images acquired on 12 November showed that the lava flow had traveled approximately 11.5 km during the six days of the eruption.

Sources: Virunga National Park, GORISK


2 November-8 November 2011

Virunga National Park reported that on 6 November a fissure eruption from Nyamuragira began low on the flank, producing slow-moving lava flows that traveled into unpopulated areas to the N. The eruption was clearly observed from the park headquarters. Video posted on the park's website showed a fissure eruption with lava fountains.

Source: Virunga National Park


27 January-2 February 2010

During 27 January-2 February, the MODIS sensor aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite frequently detected thermal anomalies from Nyamuragira. The Toulouse VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume was seen on satellite imagery on 29 January.

Sources: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts Team


13 January-19 January 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Toulouse VAAC reported that on 18 January sulfur dioxide-and-steam plumes from Nyamuragira possibly contained ash. An ash cloud was visible in satellite imagery the next day.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 January-12 January 2010

The Washington VAAC reported a large sulfur dioxide plume in the vicinity of Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo during 10-11 January. According to a news article, lava from Nyamuragira continued to flow S and SW on 6 January, and had traveled 21 km to within 7 km of the road between Goma and Sake. On 7 January ashfall was reported in Goma, 30 km S.

Sources: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Agence France-Presse (AFP), OpEdNews


30 December-5 January 2010

According to news articles, Nyamuragira erupted on 2 January from a fissure on the SE flank. Park rangers reported hearing a loud explosion in the early morning before seeing flowing lava. By 3 January, the lava flow had traveled 4.6 km, was 15 m wide, and had burned about 10 hectares of forest in a non-populated area of the Virunga National Park.

Sources: CNN, Agence France-Presse (AFP), UN News Centre, UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC)


1 April-7 April 2009

A recent report from Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO) noted a seismic swarm from Nyamuragira during 23-27 January and increased seismicity along the East African Rift since then. Scientists who visited the Nyiragongo summit crater on 22 and 24 March saw intense fumarolic activity in the summit crater of Nyamuragira through binoculars. The activity was concentrated in the southern area. GVO noted that seismic swarms typically precede eruptions by 3-5 months and that an eruption could occur from the southern side.

Source: Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO)


29 November-5 December 2006

Based on satellite imagery, the Toulouse VAAC reported that during 29 November-2 December emissions from Nyamuragira produced ash plumes to altitudes of 3-6.1 km (10,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted W and NW. By mid-morning on 2 December, ash plumes were no longer visible.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 November-28 November 2006

GVO reported that on 27 November at 2200, incandescence from a new eruption of Nyamuragira was visible from Goma, about 30 km S. The intense red glow suggested lava fountaining and flows. Sustained long-period earthquake activity had been present since 26 October.

Source: Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO)


26 October-1 November 2005

Beginning on 23 October, GVO recorded heightened seismic activity along the East African Rift and around the Virunga volcanoes when a swarm of long-period earthquakes occurred N of Nyamuragira. More than 140 events were recorded at a station 19 km E of the volcano. On 27 October at 1500, another swarm of long-period earthquakes began beneath the same area. More than 300 events were recorded until at least 28 October. At 2010, a M 4.5 tectonic earthquake occurred N of Lake Tanganika, which was followed by several aftershocks. GVO noted that this activity reinforces the likelihood of an eruption in the near future, but volcanic activity would not pose a threat to inhabited areas. The Alert Level for the nearby city of Goma remained at Yellow.

Source: Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO)


29 June-5 July 2005

GVO reported that a significant seismic crisis occurred at Nyamuragira during several days in late June. The crisis consisted of swarms of mainly long-period earthquakes, which increased in number daily and peaked on 26 and 27 June. The swarms were recorded by the entire seismic network at the volcano, as far away as 90 km S of the volcano. Most of the events occurred within a 10 km radius around Nyamuragira's summit caldera and were aligned roughly N-S. The depths of the earthquakes ranged from 0 to 30 km, with two main areas of concentration; one between 15 and 25 km deep, and the other between 0 and 4 km. Based on precursory activity before previous historical eruptions at Nyamuragira, GVO reported that a new eruption might occur in the next 2-4 months. They stressed that an eruption from Nyamuragira would not threaten the city of Goma or other inhabited areas.

Sources: Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), Jacques Durieux, UN Program Manager


26 May-1 June 2004

The Toulouse VAAC reported that during 26 May to 1 June there were weak but steady emissions from Nyamuragira and neighboring Nyiragongo (~13 km SE from Nyamuragira). The Goma volcano observatory confirmed that ash fell within a radius of 60 km of both volcanoes.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 May-25 May 2004

The Toulouse VAAC reported that satellite imagery showed a weak eruption of ash at Nyamuragira on 25 May.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 May-18 May 2004

During a flight over Nyamuragira on 12 May scientists noted that volcanic activity remained strong, but stable. The lava lake at the volcano's summit was in a ~15-m-deep pit and its activity had greatly decreased in comparison to observations on 9 May. The lake's surface had crusted over, with three vents exhibiting Strombolian activity (lava spattering and overflows producing short lava flows). In addition, the eruptive fracture on the volcano's NNW flank had four main cones with very active lava fountains reaching heights of 30-50 m. Small lava flows from the cones coalesced into one wide lava flow, covering a large area to a distance of ~12 km. The TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Volcanic Emissions Group reported that sulfur-dioxide clouds were visible on TOMS satellite imagery since the eruption began on 8 May, although some of the gas may be attributed to emissions from neighboring Nyiragongo (~13 km SE from Nyamuragira).

Sources: Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), OMI Sulfur Dioxide Group


5 May-11 May 2004

The Goma Volcano Observatory reported that a new eruption at Nyamuragira, which began on 8 May at 0548, was marked by strong volcanic tremor. Activity began in the volcano's summit caldera and later propagated to the N flank. A reconnaissance flight over the volcano on 9 May revealed an active lava lake in the NNE part of the Nyamuragira caldera. The lake was ~300 m in diameter and had four strong lava fountains in it. In addition, a 2-km-long eruptive fracture on the volcano's NNW flank had several lava fountains along it and two cones being built. Lava poured from many vents, forming one main flow towards the NNW. The flows remained within the National Park boundaries and did not threaten populated areas. Ash fell in several villages on the W and N flanks of the volcano.

Sources: Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Agence France-Presse (AFP)


10 December-16 December 2003

During December, seismicity continued at Nyamuragira and may have increased.

Source: Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO)


30 April-6 May 2003

A report issued on 2 May noted an inferred renewal of activity on Nyamuragira. Residents living in the villages of Katale and Tongo, the settlements closest to the volcano, reported rumblings on 30 April, in addition to clear noises of individual explosions. At the same time on 30 April the closest seismic station (Katale) recorded 18 clear explosion signals, directly followed by an important tectonic earthquake located beneath the volcano. In the next hours seismometers registered 7 type-C events and another important tectonic earthquake.

Source: Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO)


26 February-4 March 2003

A seismic crisis began at Nyamuragira during the evening of 26 February, with an increase in both long-period and tectonic earthquakes and an increase in tremor amplitude. GVO received reports from residents near the volcano of possible eruptive activity, but GVO scientists' view of the volcano was obscured by clouds. Spasmodic tremor was recorded on 19 and 23 February, lasting several tens of minutes. According to GVO, this seismicity was located very close to the surface. They stated that activity at Nyamuragira was changing very rapidly and an eruption may occur in a matter of days or weeks.

Source: Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO)


9 October-15 October 2002

During a flight over Nyamuragira on 27 September, researchers confirmed that the eruption had ended. Only fumarolic activity was observed and weak tremor was recorded.

Source: Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO)


14 August-20 August 2002

Scientists observing Nyamuragira, following the eruption that began on 25 July, found that on 6 August the lower part of a fracture on the volcano's N flank was active. They saw three very active lava fountains eject scoria about 100 m high and a very fast moving lava flow travel to the NE from a breach in the lowest part of the fracture. They estimated that about 3 million cubic meters of lava was being emitted per day. By the 7th, activity had dropped significantly, with only one weak lava fountain active and a decrease in the amount of tremor recorded.

Sources: Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)


31 July-6 August 2002

Helicopter flights on 1 and 3 August revealed that the eruption that began on 25 July at Nyamuragira continued at a high rate. Two volcanic cones were visible growing on the eruptive fracture. The cones were built by the accumulation of spatter and ash from two very active 100- to 200-m-high lava fountains. Two large lava flows moved quickly and joined below the lowest cone to form a main flow. The main flow (estimated to be 15 km long) moved toward the NNE and changed direction after a few kilometers to move toward the NE. Many lateral overflows were visible on the E side of the main flow. The front of the main flow appeared to be very wide and lava covered a wide area, though it remained within the National Park boundaries. Permanent tremor was registered. The Alert Level remained at Yellow.

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)


24 July-30 July 2002

An eruption began at Nyamuragira on the evening of 25 July that produced a cloud composed of steam, gas, and ash, 100- to 200-m-high lava fountains, and lava flows down the volcano's N and S flanks. According to the seismic record, the eruption began on the 25th at about 1310. National Park guards saw "smoke" rising above the volcano about an hour earlier. Around 1700, lava was seen pouring out of a fracture. Scientists who visited the crater later that day saw that the crater had been cut in two parts by a fracture: NW and SE. Sustained 100- to 200-m-high lava fountains were visible along the fracture. One lava flow traveled to the N from the several-km-long fracture, while a smaller one traveled to the S. On the 27th the lava flows were 6-7 km long and ~1 km wide. Neither flow was a threat to inhabited areas, but they caused large amounts of damage to vegetation within the National Park.

Volcanic clouds produced during the eruption were detected by several satellites. Beginning on 26 July around 0000, a steam-and-ash plume was visible on METEOSAT satellite imagery, below 6 km a.s.l., drifting to the WSW. From the 26th to the 28th TOMS detected 125 to 330 kt of SO2 in a cloud that may have come from the neighboring volcano Nyiragongo, but is believed to be from Nyamuragira. A NASA satellite detected a very large plume that was 400 km long, 300 km wide, and extended to the WSW. Nyamuragira is ~20 km NW of Nyiragongo and 40 km NW of the city of Goma, which was devastated by an eruption at Nyiragongo in January 2002. Scientists do not think the eruption of Nyamuragira is a threat to residents of Goma, but the ash cloud may cause respiratory problems, and threaten animals and crops in its path.

Sources: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), US Air Force Weather Agency, TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Associated Press


20 February-26 February 2002

According to news articles, a team of volcanologists from the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the Goma Volcanological Observatory stated that seismicity dramatically increased at Nyamuragira about 25 February. In a statement released to UN headquarters the team of volcanologists said they expect Nyamuragira to erupt within the next several days or weeks. They added that the population near the volcano should not be worried by the warning. Dario Tedesco, a UN volcanology consultant, expressed concerns that seismic activity near Lake Kivu could upset the balanced layers of carbon dioxide and methane in the bottom of the lake, leading to the release of toxic gases. Nyamuragira is ~13 km NW of Nyiragongo and ~30 km NW of the city of Goma, which was devastated by lava flows from Nyiragongo in January 2002. Nyamuragira last erupted in February 2001.

Sources: Reuters, Associated Press


28 March-3 April 2001

Volcanologists in the D.R. Congo reported that the intensity of the lava flows decreased in March, but there was a large amount of smoke and relatively high seismic activity. While the intensity of the lava flows lessened, registered seismic activity was at similar levels to December, before the eruption began. Volcanologists visited a new 65-m-high cone named Tumayhini that was formed from the eruption. Two other new cones, named Amani and Kadago, grew on the N side of the volcano.

Source: US Agency for International Development / Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance


7 March-13 March 2001

The eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 5 February continued, with lava flows mainly travelling down the S flank of the volcano. The UN Integrated Regional Information Network reported on 27 February that a UN-government assessment team that visited the town of Goma, ~40 km S of the volcano, determined that ash and lava from the eruption had damaged agriculture and livestock. The team warned that there was an urgent need for food, medicine, and vegetable seeds in the affected areas of Goma, Kitshanga, and Kalungu. According to the Goma Volcanological Observatory, a new eruption began on 2 March with eruptive activity concentrated mainly on the S flank. The Observatory stated that wind had blown ash towards the W and ash fall had destroyed ~50 km2 of pasture and 150 km2 of crops up to 30 km from the volcano in the towns of Rusaya, Kirolirwe, Burungu, Minova, the Masisi territory, and the S part of Kichanga. Ash and gas from the eruption have caused many people in those areas and Goma to experience fever, diarrhea, headache, conjunctivitis, and respiratory problems.

Sources: Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), IRIN News, Reuters


14 February-20 February 2001

According to a Reuters article, the eruption at Nyamuragira that was first observed on 6 February continued at least until 18 February. There were reports of lava flowing from three cones, "flames" rising 100 m above the volcano, and ash falling over an area of 20 to 30 km2 around the volcano. Lava flowed down the S flank of the volcano, threatening to reach roads running N from the town of Goma ~30 km away. Scientists from the Lwiro Natural Science Research Centre in Bukavu said abnormal activity was initially detected in December. There was a report of one injury from the volcanic activity; a man lost his leg after accidentally stepping into a lava flow. Officials said that the effect of ash fall on crops, pastures used for grazing, and the water supply could devastate the region.

Scientists from the University of Hawaii used MODIS to monitor the positions of the lava flows on the volcano. They created hot spot maps that show the positions of thermal anomalies that were detected on 7, 8, 11, and 12 February. An approximately 7x5 km large hot spot was detected on 7 February 7-10 km N of the summit. By 8 February the anomaly had increased in size and was oriented in a SSW-NNE direction; a second hot spot, ~13x6 km in size and oriented towards the E-ESE, was detected SSE of the summit. On 11 and 12 February the NNE-trending NE-flank hot spot reached a maximum distance of ~22 km and the E-trending S-flank hot spot extended ~17 km.

Sources: Reuters, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts Team


31 January-6 February 2001

According to a preliminary report from USAID/OFDA, Nyamuragira began erupting at 0032 on 6 February. Observations made during a flight over the volcano revealed that there were active lava flows. The lava appeared to be flowing from two fissures; one to the W towards the town of Kitchanga, and another to the S in the direction of the town of Mugunga (Sake) and Nyiragongo volcano. Smoke was observed near the volcano and the sound of thunder was heard. Cloudy conditions prevented clear observations of the volcano.

Source: US Agency for International Development / Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2011 Nov 6 2012 Mar 16 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NW flank
2010 Jan 2 2010 Jan 29 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Summit caldera and SSE flank
2006 Nov 27 2006 Dec 5 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South flank
2004 May 8 2004 May 28 ± 3 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and NNW flank
2002 Jul 25 2002 Sep (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit caldera, north & south flanks
2001 Feb 6 2001 Apr 5 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations North and SSE flanks
2000 Jan 27 2000 Feb 10 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SE flank (Ngerageze)
1998 Oct 17 1998 Oct 25 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1996 Dec 1 1996 Dec 5 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1994 Jul 4 1994 Aug 25 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations West flank (Kimera) and summit
1991 Sep 20 1993 Feb 8 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations NE flank 1530 m (Mikombe)
1989 Apr 24 1989 Aug 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, SE and East flank
1987 Dec 30 1988 Jan 4 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations North Flank (Gafuranindi)
1986 Jul 16 1986 Aug 20 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South flank (near Kitazungurwa)
1984 Feb 23 1984 Mar 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NW flank (Kivandimwe)
1981 Dec 25 1982 Jan 14 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SE flank (Rugarambiro)
1980 Jan 30 1980 Feb 24 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations North flank (Gasenyi)
1976 Dec 23 1977 Jun 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations SSW flank (Murara and Harakandi)
1971 Mar 24 1971 May 5 ± 4 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations WNW flank (Rugarama)
1967 Apr 23 1967 May 9 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations North flank (Gakararanga)
1958 Aug 7 1958 Nov 21 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations North flank (Kitsimbanyi), NNW rift
1957 Dec 28 Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Summit caldera and SSE fissure zone
1956 Nov 17 1956 Nov 18 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Summit caldera and NNW fissure zone
1954 Feb 21 1954 May 28 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations SSE fissure zone (Mihaga)
1951 Nov 16 1952 Jan 16 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NNW fissure zone (Shabubembe-Ndakaza)
1951 Jul 25 1951 Jul 28 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations SW flank (Gituro)
1948 Mar 1 1948 Jul 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SW flank (Gituro, Muhuboli), N flank
1938 Jan 28 1940 Jun 25 ± 5 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Summit, SE and SW flanks (Tshambene)
1921 1938 Jan 17 ± 3 days Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Caldera
1920 Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations SSW flank (Lake Kivu)
1912 Dec 3 1913 Apr Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SW flank (Rumoka), and summit
1909 May 1909 May Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Summit caldera
1908 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations Summit caldera
1907 Nov 7 1907 Dec 5 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit caldera
1907 Apr 1907 May Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Summit caldera
[ 1906 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1   Summit caldera
1905 Jul 22 1905 Sep 25 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations East flank (Kanamaharagi)
1904 Apr 1904 May 16 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SW flank (Nahimbi)
1902 Apr 22 (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations SSE fissure zone
1901 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations East flank (Singiro)
1899 Feb Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NNW fissure zone
1896 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1894 Jun Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1882 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations North flank
1865 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1550 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Burt M L, Wadge G, Scott W A, 1994. Simple stochastic modelling of the eruption history of a basaltic volcano: Nyamuragira, Zaire. Bull Volc, 56: 87-97.

Denaeyer M E, 1969. Nouvelles donnees lithologiques sur les volcans actifs des Virunga (Afrique centrale). Bull Volc, 33: 1128-1144.

Hamaguchi H (ed), 1983. Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: Geophysical Aspects. Sendai: Tohoku Univ Fac Sci, 130 p.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kampunzu A B, Lubala R T, Brousse R, Caron J P-H, Cluzel D, Lenoble L, Vellutini P J, 1984. Sur l'eruption du Nyamulagira de Decembre 1981 a Janvier 1982: cone et coulee du Rugarambiro (Kivu, Zaire). Bull Volc, 47: 79-105.

Krafft M, 1990. Fuhrer zu den Virunga-Vulkanen. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, 187 p.

Pottier Y, 1978. Premiere eruption historique du Nyiragongo et manifestations adventives simultanees du Volcan Nyamulagira (Chaine des VIrunga - Kivu - Zaire: Dec. 76 - Jiun 77). Mus Roy Afr Centr, Tervuren (Belg), Dept Geol Mineral, Rapp Ann 1977, p 157-175.

Pouclet A, 1975. Activites du Volcan Nyamuragira (rift ouest de l'Afrique centrale), evaluation des volumes de materiaux emis. Bull Volc, 39: 466-478.

Richard J J, Neumann van Padang M, 1957. Africa and the Red Sea. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI 4: 1-118.

Tanaka K (ed), 1988. Geophysical Studies of Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira. Hirosaki: Hirosaki Univ Fac Sci, 78 p (in Japanese with English abs).

Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield volcano that rises about 25 km north of Lake Kivu, NW of Nyiragongo volcano. Nyamuragira, also known as Nyamulagira, has a volume of 500 cu km, and extensive lava flows from the volcano blanket 1500 sq km of the western branch of the East African Rift. The broad low-angle shield volcano contrasts dramatically with its steep-sided neighbor Nyiragongo. The 3058-m-high summit of Nyamuragira is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. Historical eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, frequently modifying the morphology of the caldera floor, as well as from the numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938, at the time of a major flank eruption. Historical lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.