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There are no activity reports for Kilimanjaro.
There are no Holocene eruptions known for Kilimanjaro. If this volcano has had large eruptions prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.
Downie C, Wilkinson P, 1972. The Geology of Kilimanjaro. England: Univ Sheffield Dept Geol, 253 p.
IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..
Nonnotte P, Guillou H, Le Gall B, Benoit M, Cotten J, Scaillet S, 2008. New K-Ar age determinations of Kilimanjaro volcano in the North Tanzanian diverging rift, East Africa. J Volc Geotherm Res, 173: 99-112.
Nyamweru C K, 1990. . (pers. comm.).
Richard J J, Neumann van Padang M, 1957. Africa and the Red Sea. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI 4: 1-118.
Massive Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, consists of three large stratovolcanoes constructed along a NW-SE trend. The ice-capped, 5895-m-high summit towers 5200 m above the surrounding plains. Activity at the older cone of Shira that forms the broad WNW shoulder of Kilimanjaro began during the Pliocene, and the extensively dissected Mawenzi forms a prominent, sharp-topped peak of Pleistocene age on the upper ESE flank dominated by a densely packed radial dike swarm. More than 250 satellitic cones occupy a rift zone to the NW and SE of Kibo, the central stratovolcano. A 2.4 x 3.6 km caldera gives the summit of Kibo an elongated, broad profile. Most of Kilimanjaro was constructed during the Pleistocene, but a group of youthful-looking nested summit craters are of apparent Holocene age, and fumarolic activity continues.