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Alutu, between lakes Zway and Mirrga (Langano), is a stratovolcano with multiple vents aligned along NNE-SSW and E-W fissures along a narrow graben between the two lakes. This silicic volcanic center lies along the regional Wonji Fault Belt and has produced abundant pumice-flow and pumice-fall deposits, along with lesser rhyolitic lava flows. Obsidian lava flows erupted from craters along the fissures have descended the flanks in all directions. Cinder cones, lava domes, phreatic explosion craters, and thermal springs are structurally controlled. The oldest known eruptions from Alutu produced the Hulo-Seyno Ignimbrite about 155,000 years ago. The latest eruptions produced obsidian flows and pumice breccias about 2000 years ago. Alutu eruptive products overlie recent basaltic lava flows to the west. Strong fumarolic activity continues, and the volcano has been the object of a geothermal exploration program.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|0050 BCE (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Alutu volcano lies between light-brown Lake Mirrga (Lake Langano) on the south and greenish Lake Zway on the north. The volcano displays several craters aligned along NNE-SSW and E-W fissures. Dark-colored obsidian lava flows erupted from craters along the fissures have descended the flanks in all directions. Although the age of the most recent eruption of Alutu is not known, its eruptive products overlie recent basaltic lava flows to the west, and strong fumarolic activity continues.
NASA Space Shuttle image ISS001-363-7, 2001 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
|A large area of Holocene-to-prehistorical cinder cones and lava flows lies immediately east and south of Zway Lake (bottom) and forms islands along its eastern shore in this NASA Landsat mosaic (with north to the top). Faulting along the East Zway segment of the Wonji Fault Belt is seen cutting horizontally across the bottom of the image. The dark-colored Alutu volcanic complex lies the lower left. The 15 x 30 km wide Zway (also spelled Zwai, Zeway, or Ziway) lake occupies the central Ethiopian Rift.
NASA Landsat7 image (worldwind.arc.nasa.gov)
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Di Paola G M, 1972. The Ethiopian Rift Valley (between 7° 00' and 8° 40' lat north). Bull Volc, 36: 517-560.
Gianelli G, Teklemariam M, 1993. Water-rock interaction process in the Aluto-Langano geothermal field (Ethiopia). J Volc Geotherm Res, 56: 429-445.
Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.
Mohr P A, Mitchell J G, Raynolds R G H, 1980. Quaternary volcanism and faulting at O'a caldera, central Ethiopian Rift. Bull Volc, 43: 173-190.
WoldeGabriel G, 1987. . (pers. comm.).