Manda Hararo

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 12.17°N
  • 40.82°E

  • 600 m
    1968 ft

  • 221115
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

8 July-14 July 2009

A large sulfur dioxide plume and several thermal anomalies from Manda Hararo that were detected in satellite imagery during 28-30 June prompted a science team to visit the area on 4 July. After conducting ground-based and aerial observations for approximately 2 hours, they reported that the eruption occurred near the August 2007 eruption site, and was possibly bigger than that event. No active lava effusion was seen, but steaming was observed from the 4-5 km-long fissure that, because of high temperatures, had to be observed from a distance. They also saw new predominantly 'a'a lava flows that were 2-3 m thick. The fissure was lined with scoria ramparts 30-50 m high. Temperature measurements taken with a FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer) indicated that the lava flow had cooled significantly with temperatures between 30 and 120 degrees Celsius at the surface. A maximum temperature of 238 degrees Celsius was measured during aerial observations.

Sources: Gezahegn Yirgu, Department of Earth Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Simon Carn



 Available Weekly Reports


2009: July
2007: August


8 July-14 July 2009

A large sulfur dioxide plume and several thermal anomalies from Manda Hararo that were detected in satellite imagery during 28-30 June prompted a science team to visit the area on 4 July. After conducting ground-based and aerial observations for approximately 2 hours, they reported that the eruption occurred near the August 2007 eruption site, and was possibly bigger than that event. No active lava effusion was seen, but steaming was observed from the 4-5 km-long fissure that, because of high temperatures, had to be observed from a distance. They also saw new predominantly 'a'a lava flows that were 2-3 m thick. The fissure was lined with scoria ramparts 30-50 m high. Temperature measurements taken with a FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer) indicated that the lava flow had cooled significantly with temperatures between 30 and 120 degrees Celsius at the surface. A maximum temperature of 238 degrees Celsius was measured during aerial observations.

Sources: Gezahegn Yirgu, Department of Earth Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Simon Carn


1 July-7 July 2009

A large sulfur dioxide plume and several thermal anomalies from Manda Hararo were detected in satellite imagery during 28-30 June. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite imagery indicated a surface lava flow in the Karbahi region. Karbahi is a graben area with numerous active faults, fissures, and basalt flows, NW of the center of the broad Manda Hararo volcanic complex. Preliminary data suggested that the eruption was larger than the previous eruption in August 2007. On 8 July, a scientist that visited the area reported fresh lava flows, an eruptive fissure that was about 5 km long, and gas emitting from multiple cones.

Sources: Simon Carn, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts Team, The Guardian News


15 August-21 August 2007

A large sulfur dioxide plume and several thermal anomalies from Manda Hararo were detected in satellite imagery on 13 August. On 16 August, a field team conducted aerial and ground observations of a locality known as Karbahi, a graben area with numerous active faults, fissures, and basalt flows, NW of the center of Manda Hararo. Observations revealed active volcanism, including isolated areas of intense gas emission and visible sulfur deposits. Basaltic lava flowed from long fissures, predominantly to the W of the graben floor. Each fissure was covered by a continuous row of small and closely spaced spatter and scoria cones 2-10 m high. Spatter and scoria deposits ranged in size from coarse lapilli to bombs. Incandescence and occasionally small flames were emitted from the tops of some of the cones.

Observed 'a'a and pahoehoe flows traveled a few hundred meters from the vents. The overall thickness of the flows varied but reached several meters in places. Lava channels and lava tubes were abundant. Fault scarps with fresh breaks and rockfalls were noted. The area affected by tectonic and volcanic activity was an estimated 5-7 km long and 1 km wide.

According to eye-witness accounts, a cracking sound was heard and a tremor was felt on 12 August. On 13 August, "fire" was seen that lit up a large area. "Fire and smoke" continued with variable intensity until 16 August. No damage to life or property was reported.

Sources: Simon Carn, Gezahegn Yirgu, Atalay Ayele, Shimeles Fisseha, Tadiwos Chernet and Ato Kifle Damtew, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2009 Jun 28 2009 Jul 1 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2007 Aug 12 2007 Sep 17 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

CNR-CNRS, 1975. Geological Maps of Afar: 1, Northern Afar (1971); 2, Central and Southern Afar (1975). La Celle St Cloud, France: Geotechnip.

Smithsonian Institution-GVN, 1990-. [Monthly event reports]. Bull Global Volc Network, v 15-33.

Varet J, 1978. Geology of central and southern Afar (Ethiopia and Djibouti Republic). CNRS, Paris, 124 p.

The southernmost axial range of western Afar, the Manda Hararo complex is located in the Kalo plain, SSE of Dabbahu volcano. The massive complex is 105 km long and 20-30 km wide, and represents an uplifted segment of a mid-ocean ridge spreading center. A small basaltic shield volcano is located at the northern end of the complex, south of which is an area of abundant fissure-fed lava flows. Two basaltic shield volcanoes, the largest of which is Unda Hararo, occupy the center of the complex. The dominant part of the complex lies to the south, where the Gumatmali-Gablaytu fissure system is located. Voluminous fluid lava flows issued from these NNW-trending fissures, and solidified lava lakes occupy two large craters. The small Gablaytu shield volcano forms the SE-most end of the Manda Hararo complex. Lava flows from Gablaytu and from Manda overlie 8000-year-old sediments. Hot springs and fumaroles occur around Daorre lake. The first historical eruption of Manda Hararo produced fissure-fed lava flows in 2007.