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Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|[ 1900 (?) ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|[ 1863 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain||2|
|1861 May 8||1861 Oct (?)||Confirmed||3||Historical Observations|
|1400 Jul 15 ± 45 days||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.
CNR-CNRS Afar Team, 1973. Geology of northern Afar (Ethiopia). Rev Geog Phys Geol Dynam, 15: 443-490.
De Fino M, La Volpe L, Lirer L, 1978. Geology and volcanology of the Edd-Bahar Assoli area (Ethiopia). Bull Volc, 41: 32-42.
Richard J J, Neumann van Padang M, 1957. Africa and the Red Sea. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI 4: 1-118.
Wiart P, Oppenheimer C, 2000. Largest known historical eruption in Africa: Dubbi volcano, Eritrea, 1861. Geology, 28: 291-294.
Wiart P, Oppenheimer C, 2005. Large magnitude silicic volcanism in north Afar: the Nabro volcanic range and Ma'alalta volcano. Bull Volc, 67: 99-115.
Dubbi, located east of the Erta Ale Range and south of the crystalline basement rocks of the Danakil Alps, is a large volcanic massif that rises to 1625 m above the western shore of the Red Sea. About 20 small cinder cones are located at the summit, and extensive basaltic lava fields to the north and NE, known as the Edd lava field, cover an area of 2700 sq km and reach the Red Sea coast. The two most-recent eruptive centers are fissure systems that extend NW-SE and NNE-SSW. The former produced lava flows that reached the Red Sea in 1400 CE. The second created 19 small craters at the summit in 1861. Ash fell more than 300 km from the volcano. Two villages were destroyed and more than 100 persons were killed during Africa's largest eruption in historical time. Lava flows from the 1861 eruption traveled as far as 22 km and reached the coast.