Porak

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 40.02°N
  • 45.78°E

  • 2800 m
    9184 ft

  • 214090
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Porak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Porak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Porak.

The mid-Pleistocene Porak volcano lies in the Vardeniss volcanic ridge about 20 km SE of Lake Sevan. The volcanic field straddles the Armenia/Azerbaijan border, and lava flows extend into both countries. The flanks are dotted with 10 satellitic cones and fissure vents. Porak was constructed along the active Pambak-Sevan strike-slip fault, which has bisected the mid-Pleistocene Khonarassar volcano, separating its two halves by about 800 m. Two large lava flows traveled up to 21 km north and NW, and fresh-looking lava flows form peninsulas extending into Lake Alagyol. Fifth century BC petroglyphs were interpreted to depict volcanic eruptions (Karakhanian et al., 2002). Porak is referred to in a famous cuneiform inscription as Mount Bamni, and stratigraphic and archeological evidence indicates that an explosive eruption also producing a lava flow occurred at the time of a military battle dated to 782-773 BCE.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 0740 BCE ± 2 years ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
0778 BCE ± 5 years Unknown Confirmed   Anthropology SW flank
4510 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Bamni


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Khonarassar
    Hronarassar
Cone 40° 7' 30" N 45° 39' 30" E
A blocky lava flow extends across the foreground from a pyroclastic cone of the Porak volcanic field, located along the Vardeniss volcanic ridge about 20 km SE of Lake Sevan. The volcanic field straddles the Armenia/Azerbaijan border, and lava flows extend into both countries. This lava flow is the youngest of the volcanic field. Another flow from the same cone (located in Armenia) flowed into Lake Alagyol in Azerbaijan. Archaeological and historical evidence indicates several eruptions occurred during the Holocene.

Photo by Jim Luhr, 2004 (Smithsonian Institution).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Haroutiunian R A, 2006. The historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas revisited. J Volc Geotherm Res, 155: 334-337.

Karakhanian A, Djrbashian R, Trifonov V, Philip H, Arakelian S, Avagian A, 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factors for Armenia and adjacent countries. J Volc Geotherm Res, 113: 319-344.

Karakhanian A, Jrbashyan R, Trifonov V, Philip H, Arakelian S, Avagyan A, Baghdassaryan H, Davtian V, 2006. Historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas: what is revisited?. J Volc Geotherm Res, 155: 338-345.

Karakhanian A, Jrbashyan R, Trifonov V, Philip H, Arakelian S, Avagyan A, Baghdassaryan H, Davtian V, Ghoukassyan Y, 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. J Volc Geotherm Res, 126: 31-62.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
194
955
62,882
1,713,373

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Porak Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.