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The 5165-m-high, double-peaked stratovolcano Mount Ararat, also known as Agri Dagi, is Turkey's highest, largest volume, and easternmost volcano. Glacier-clad Ararat, along with its twin volcano, 3925-m-high Kucuk Ararat (or Lesser Ararat), covers an area of 1000 sq km at the eastern end of a SSW-ESE line of volcanoes extending from Nemrut Dagi. Construction of the Greater and Lesser Ararat volcanoes was followed by a period of extensive flank eruptions, many erupted along N-S-trending fissures. The initial stage of flank eruptions produced a cluster of cinder cones and dacitic-rhyolitic lava domes surrounding Greater Ararat and a series of pyroclastic cones and domes on the western flank of Lesser Ararat. Late-stage activity formed large pyroclastic cones lower on the flanks of the two volcanoes. Ararat appears to have been active during the 3rd millennium BCE; pyroclastic-flow deposits overlie early Bronze Age artifacts and human remains. Karakhanian et al. (2002) reported historical evidence for a phreatic eruption and pyroclastic flow at the time of a July 1840 earthquake and landslide.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1840 Jul 2||Unknown||Confirmed||3||Historical Observations||Upper northern flank|
|[ 1783 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|[ 1450 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|0550 BCE||Unknown||Confirmed||Anthropology||Summit (?) and north flank|
|2450 BCE ± 50 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Anthropology||NW flank|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Agri Dagi | Buyuk Agri Dagi|
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
Kucuk Agri Dagi
|Cone||3925 m||39° 39' 0" N||44° 25' 0" E|
|The snow-covered Mount Ararat massif is seen in the center of this 1992 Space Shuttle photo from the NE. The 5165-m-high, double-peaked stratovolcano Mt. Ararat is Turkey's highest, largest volume, and easternmost volcano, near the borders with Armenia and Iran. Ararat, along with its twin volcano, 3903-m-high Kucuk Ararat (the lower conical peak to the left of Ararat), covers an area of 1000 sq km. Fresh-looking postglacial lava flows were erupted from flank fissures, and well-preserved craters are located on the flanks of the volcano.
Photo by National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA), 1992.
|This Space Shuttle image shows the massive 1000-sq-km snow-capped Ararat massif in March 2001. The north-trending gash descending at the top-center from the summit crater of 5165-m-high Ararat is Ahora Gorge. New historical evidence documents a phreatic eruption and pyroclastic flow at the time of a July 1840 earthquake and landslide in the gorge. The conical peak of 3903-m-high Kucuk Ararat (Lesser Ararat) is visible at the far right, and youthful craters can be seen on the western flank of the massif at the left.
Image courtesy of Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, 2001 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov).
|Glacier-clad Mount Ararat, seen in this oblique NASA Space Shuttle image, is Turkey's highest (5165 m), largest volume, and easternmost volcano. Its twin volcano, 3925-m-high Kucuk Ararat (or Lesser Ararat), lies across a saddle to the SE (right-center). Prominent lava flows with dramatic flow levees were erupted from flank vents between Greater and Lesser Ararat; one of these terminates in a fan-shaped lobe at the lower left. Pyroclastic-flow deposits from Ararat overlie early Bronze Age artifacts.
NASA Space Shuttle image ISS002-E-10032, 2001 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
|Snow-capped Mount Ararat is seen from the Khor Virap monastery in Armenia, NE of the volcano. The 5165-m-high Ararat, also known as Agri Dagi, is Turkey's highest and easternmost volcano, lying near the border with Armenia. Ararat appears to have been active during the 3rd millennium BC; pyroclastic-flow deposits overlie early Bronze Age artifacts and human remains. A phreatic eruption and pyroclastic flow may have occurred at the time of a July 1840 earthquake and landslide.
Photo by Andrew Behesnilian (Wikimedia Commons).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Blumenthal M M, van der Kaaden G, Vlodavetz V I, 1964. Turkey & Caucasus. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 17: 1-23.
Feraud J, Ozkocak O, 1993. Les volcans actifs de Turquie: guide geologique et itineraires de'excursions. L'Assoc Volc Europeenne (LAVE), 2: 1-82.
Haroutiunian R A, 2006. The historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas revisited. J Volc Geotherm Res, 155: 334-337.
IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..
Karakhanian A, Djrbashian R, Trifonov V, Philip H, Arakelian S, Avagian A, 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factors for Armenia and adjacent countries. J Volc Geotherm Res, 113: 319-344.
Karakhanian A, Jrbashyan R, Trifonov V, Philip H, Arakelian S, Avagyan A, Baghdassaryan H, Davtian V, 2006. Historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas: what is revisited?. J Volc Geotherm Res, 155: 338-345.
Karakhanian A, Jrbashyan R, Trifonov V, Philip H, Arakelian S, Avagyan A, Baghdassaryan H, Davtian V, Ghoukassyan Y, 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. J Volc Geotherm Res, 126: 31-62.
Lambert R S J, Holland J G, Owen P F, 1974. Chemical petrology of a suite of calc-alkaline lavas from Mount Ararat, Turkey. J Geol, 82: 419-438.
Pearce J A, Bender J F, de Long S E, Kidd W S F, Low P J, Guner Y, Saroglu F, Yilmaz Y, Moorbath S, Mitchell J G, 1990. Genesis of collision volcanism in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. J Volc Geotherm Res, 44: 184-229.
Sapper K, 1917. Katalog der Geschichtlichen Vulkanausbruche. Strasbourg: Karl J Trubner, 358 p.
Yilmaz Y, Guner Y, Saroglu F, 1998. Geology of the Quaternary volcanic centers of the east Anatolia. J Volc Geotherm Res, 85: 173-210.