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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 38.58°N
  • 28.52°E

  • 750 m
    2460 ft

  • 213000
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Kula.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Kula.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Kula.

Geological Background

The Kula volcanic field, the westernmost area of young volcanism in Turkey, lies about 450 km WNW of its closest Holocene neighbor in central Turkey, the Karapinar volcanic field. The Kula field consists of a broad area of Quaternary alkaline basanitic-to-phonotephritic cinder cones and maars erupted along a roughly E-W-trending line SW of the city of Selendi. Most of the Kula volcanoes are Pleistocene in age, between about 1.1 million and 10,000 years old. The initial stage produced lava flows from vents along the ring fracture of caldera identified from satellite images. The second and third stages took place along an E-W-trending graben and produced lava flows with ultramafic xenoliths. Although activity was considered to have continued until the beginning of the Holocene (Yilmaz, 1990), or almost to historical times (Borsi et al., 1972), the age of the most recent eruption from the Kula field is not known.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Kula. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Kula page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Cemrkopru Baraj Golu Cone
Kara Divlit Tepe Pyroclastic cone
Kula Divlit Cone


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Cemel Tepe Maar

Photo Gallery

Kara Divlit Tepe ("Black Ink Cone") is part of the Kula volcanic field, the westernmost area of young volcanism in Turkey. Kara Divlit Tepe cinder cone is the youngest of the broad Quaternary volcanic field, which is mostly Pleistocene in age. The 300-m-high cone produced a voluminous lava flow, visible to the north to the right of the cone, that traveled 22 km to the NW and is one of the two youngest flows at Kula. The Kula volcanic field contains a group of cinder cones and maars erupted along a roughly E-W-trending line.

Photo by Samuele Agostini, 2000 (CNR, Pisa, Italy).


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Alici P, Temel A, Gourgaud A, 2002. Pb-Nd-Sr isotope and trace element geochemistry of Quaternay extension-related volcanism: a case study of Kula region (western Anatolia, Turkey). J Volc Geotherm Res, 115: 487-510.

Aydar E, 1998. Early Miocene to Quaternary evolution of volcanism and the basin formation in western Anatolia: a review. J Volc Geotherm Res, 85: 69-82.

Borsi S, Ferrara G, Innocenti F, Mazzuoli R, 1972. Geochronology and petrology of recent volcanics in the eastern Aegean Sea (west Anatolia and Lesvos Island). Bull Volc, 36: 473-496.

Bunbury J M, Hall L, Anderson G J, Stannard A, 2001. The determination of fault movement history from the interaction of local drainage with volcanic epidsodes. Geol Mag, 138: 185-192.

Ercan T, Oztunali O, 1982. Characteristic features and "base surges" bed forms of Kula volcanics. Bull Geol Soc Turkey, 25: 117-125 (in Turkish with English abs).

Holness M B, Bunbury J M, 2006. Insights into continental rift-related magma chambers: cognate nodules from the Kula volcanic province, western Turkey. J Volc Geotherm Res, 153: 241-261.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Westaway R, Pringle M, Yurtmen S, Demir T, Bridgeland D, Rowbotham G, Maddy D, 2004. Pliocene and Quaternary regional uplift in western Turkey: the Gediz River terrace staircase and the volcanism at Kula. Tectonophysics, 391: 121-169.

Volcano Types

Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Phono-tephrite / Tephri-phonolite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Kula Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.