Etna

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  • Italy
  • Italy
  • Stratovolcano(es)
  • 2014 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 37.734°N
  • 15.004°E

  • 3330 m
    10922 ft

  • 211060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

2 April-8 April 2014

INGV reported that during the night of 1-2 April emissions of minor lava flows from the NE base of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone decreased. Strombolian activity gradually intensified during the evening of 2 April and then decreased the next morning. Some collapses from the E flank of the cone were also observed that morning. Poor weather conditions prevented views of Etna for a few days, but by 7 April the lava flows had ceased and Strombolian activity had sharply declined. No activity was observed on 8 April.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



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2 April-8 April 2014

INGV reported that during the night of 1-2 April emissions of minor lava flows from the NE base of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone decreased. Strombolian activity gradually intensified during the evening of 2 April and then decreased the next morning. Some collapses from the E flank of the cone were also observed that morning. Poor weather conditions prevented views of Etna for a few days, but by 7 April the lava flows had ceased and Strombolian activity had sharply declined. No activity was observed on 8 April.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


26 March-1 April 2014

INGV reported that Strombolian activity from Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone ceased during the night of 26-27 March, after 64 days of persistent activity. Lava emissions from the lower side of the NSEC significantly decreased; on the evening of 28 March a small lava flow continued to advance but had stopped and was cooling the next day.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


19 March-25 March 2014

INGV reported on 24 March that during the previous week Strombolian activity with occasional diffuse ash emissions continued from one or two vents at the base of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. Strombolian activity intensified during 18-22 March, producing more ash, and then decreased; no ash was emitted on 23 March. Lava flows originating from a vent on the upper wall traveled towards the upper part of the W wall of the Valle del Bove and also NE in the direction of Monte Simone.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


12 March-18 March 2014

INGV reported on 17 March that during the previous week Strombolian activity with occasional diffuse ash emissions continued from one or two vents at the base of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. Lava flows originating from a vent on the upper wall traveled towards the upper part of the W wall of the Valle del Bove. During 14-15 March lava also flowed NE in the direction of Monte Simone.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


5 March-11 March 2014

INGV reported that during 6-10 March Strombolian activity and occasional diffuse ash emissions continued to rise from one or two vents at the base of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. After several days of lava emissions from a vent on the lower part of the NSEC cone, during 5-6 March lava flows originated only from a higher vent and traveled 1.5 km towards the lower part of the W wall of the Valle del Bove. On 8 March sporadic emissions of hot material with small amounts of volcanic ash originated from Bocca Nuova.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


26 February-4 March 2014

INGV reported that during 28 February-4 March Strombolian activity and diffuse ash emissions continued at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC). An unstable part of the lower E flank of the cone that collapsed on 11 February continued to produce small collapses with reddish ash clouds. Lava continued to flow from a vent on the lower part of the NSEC cone to the W wall of the Valle del Bove, and during 2-3 March the flows reached the base of the wall.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


19 February-25 February 2014

INGV reported that during 19-22 February Strombolian activity continued at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and produced diffuse ash plumes. Lava continued to flow from a vent on the lower part of the NSEC cone to the W wall of the Valle del Bove. An unstable part of the lower E flank of the cone that collapsed on 11 February continued to produce small collapses with reddish ash clouds, and thermal anomalies.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


12 February-18 February 2014

INGV reported that Strombolian activity continued at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and slightly intensified on 12 February. An unstable part of the lower E flank of the cone that collapsed on 11 February continued to produce small collapses and reddish ash clouds. Lava continued to flow from the cone towards the Valle del Bove, and by nightfall had reached the base of the steep W wall of the valley, then advanced on the flat land to the N of Mount Centenarians. Strombolian activity continued during 14-15 February. Lava emissions declined, but produced lava flows a few hundred meters long. At 1208 on 15 February an explosion generated a vapor-and-ash plume, and was then followed by more explosions from the same area. During the afternoon a small lava flow emerged from a new vent at the N base of the NSEC cone. The flow traveled 100 m towards the W wall of the Valle del Bove, and remained active the next day. During 16-17 February Strombolian activity continued to produce small quantities of ash. Lava continued to flow from the vent at the base of the cone.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


5 February-11 February 2014

INGV reported that during 4-5 February activity at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was characterized by intermittent ash emissions accompanied by jets of incandescent pyroclastic material, and a constant emission of lava from one or two vents at the E base of the NSEC cone. The lava flows reached the base of the W slope of the Valle del Bove. On 6 February ash emissions ceased and small Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent pyroclastic material 100 m above the crater. On 7 February Strombolian explosions ejected material onto the flanks of the cone, and the next day ash puffs were observed. During 9-11 February activity continued to be characterized by Strombolian activity, periodic ash emissions, and advancing lava flows. At 0707 on 11 February a large quantity of reddish brown ash emitted from an area near the vents formed a very dense hot flow which quickly reached the base of the W wall of the Valle del Bove. Reddish brown ash emissions continued after the event.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


29 January-4 February 2014

INGV reported that on 28 January there was a gradual but steady decrease of activity at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Weak and sporadic Strombolian explosions were detected at night, but then the thermal cameras recorded no anomalies associated with Strombolian activity. Lava flows from two vents at the base of the NSEC cone continued to effuse at a very low rate. Weather conditions almost entirely prevented observations of Etna from the morning of 30 January until the evening of 3 February. Late on 3 February observers noted that the lava flow remained active and was several hundred meters long. Almost continuous ash emissions from NSEC began at about 1300 on 4 February and continued into the night; about 5-10 ash puffs were separated by steam emissions. Ash plumes drifted E. After sunset jets of hot material were observed rising 100 m above the crater rim. At 2000 the ash emissions and injection of incandescent material ceased, but the lava flow continued and reached 1 km long.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


22 January-28 January 2014

INGV reported that during 4-13 January nearly continuous emissions of reddish ash from Etna's Northeast Crater were visible. Strong degassing continued at least through 22 January. Strombolian activity at New Southeast Crater (NSEC) began on the evening of 21 January, following 20 days of quiet. Some explosions generated very small ash emissions that barely rose above the crater rim. Late on 22 January a small lava flow from the vent on the high E flank of the NSEC cone traveled a few hundred meters in a few hours. Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent pyroclastic material onto the cone flanks. The frequency and intensity of the explosions decreased early on 23 January, and the lava flow stopped advancing. At 0105 a small puff of gas and/or ash from the E base of the cone heralded a new lava flow that traveled W towards the Valle del Bove. Weak Strombolian activity and the advancing lava flow continued during 24-28 January, although on 25 January the amount of ash produced by the Strombolian activity increased. On 26 January an ash plume drifted E. By evening the intensity of the Strombolian activity as well as the amount of ash in the emissions decreased. The lava flow was 4 km long.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


8 January-14 January 2014

INGV reported that during 4-9 January 2014 pulsating and almost continuous ash emissions rose from Etna's Northeast Crater (NEC). Volcanic tremor amplitude remained at low levels.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


1 January-7 January 2014

INGV reported that during 31 December 2013-1 January 2014 lava flows from a vent located on the NE flank of the cone of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) continued to travel towards the N part of the Valle de Bove; the lava flows had been active since activity resumed on 29 December. On 3 January staff doing field work noted that the effusive activity had stopped.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


25 December-31 December 2013

INGV reported that on 28 December a helicopter overflight of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) revealed a crater floor partially covered with snow, and weak fumarolic activity on the N, W, and S crater rims. During the early morning hours on 29 December a camera recorded weak and sporadic incandescence from NSEC. Strong pulsating degassing also occurred at Northeast Crater. At 1115 NSEC produced a single Strombolian explosion, accompanied by an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted E. After the explosion mild Strombolian activity continued and then progressively intensified in the evening. Frequent powerful explosions from two vents located within the crater were audible in a vast sector around the volcano. Diffuse ash plumes drifted NE. Contemporaneously, two lava flows are active, one from a vent on the E flank of the NSEC cone, and the second, fed directly from the crater, traveled down the NE flank of the cone.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


11 December-17 December 2013

INGV reported on the 20th paroxysm in 2013 from Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) began with a strong explosion at 0925 on 14 December from a vent near the NE rim which generated an ash plume that rose 2 km. Intermittent ash emission gradually turned into Strombolian activity. After 1413 the activity intensified; small ash puffs were produced and Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent pyroclastics onto the flanks of the cone. Over the next few hours activity continued to intensify and a diffuse ash plume drifted ESE. At 2323 lava overflowed the SE crater rim and flowed towards the Valle del Bove. During the night explosive activity continued to intensify, and by 0330 on 15 December Strombolian activity was intense and virtually continuous. After 0500 explosive activity started to diminish, and at 0550 the volcanic tremor amplitude and the intensity and frequency of Strombolian explosions showed a sharp drop. Explosive activity continued to produce copious amounts of ash until about 0830. According to a news article, the ash emissions caused the cancellation of more than 20 flights in and out of the Catania airport.

At 0610 and 0633 two vents opened within the deep trench cutting the SE flank of the NSEC cone (where lava was still flowing from the crater since the previous evening), the first just a few tens of meters below the crater rim, the second about 100 m further downslope. Both vents initially produced lava fountains for a few minutes, with jets a few tens of meters high, and then produced lava flows that descended through the trench.

Between 0945 on 15 December and the morning of 16 December ash emission varied in frequency and intensity, related to variations in the intensity of the Strombolian activity at NSEC. During the afternoon and evening of 15 December explosive activity lasted a few to a few tens of minutes and Strombolian activity became significantly more intense or passed into pulsating, low lava fountains. The more intense periods produced greater amounts of ash leading to ashfall in populated areas on the E and SE flank, from the Milo-Zafferana area toward the Ionian coast. At night during 15-16 December lava flows continued to flow towards the Valle del Bove. A shift in wind direction caused ashfall in areas SE, S, and SW.

On 15 December small and periodic ash emissions also occurred from Northeast Crater. Small thermal anomalies detected with a thermal camera were detected during 15-16 December.

Strombolian activity at the NSEC continued through 16 December at a slowly decreasing rate and with numerous minor intensifications that generated diluted ash plumes. Lava effusion also gradually diminished, but at about 1430 on 16 December, a short fissure opened on the lower NE flank of the NSEC cone, producing a small lava flow which advanced a few hundred meters. Explosive activity finally ceased around midnight on 17 December. Very slow lava effusion continued, at a gradually decreasing rate, from the fissure on the NE flank of the NSEC cone, through the night of 17-18 December.

Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Agence France-Presse (AFP)


27 November-3 December 2013

INGV reported on the 18th paroxysm occurred from Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) late in the afternoon on 28 November. Weather clouds prevented observations of the event. Vigorous Strombolian activity on 2 December produced a plume comprised mostly of gas drifting N. The activity intensified during the evening and evolved into a paroxysmal event that finished by 2330. The event was characterized by tall lava fountains, lava flows, and a plume laden with pyroclastic material that drifted NNW and deposited ash and lapilli in that area. The lava flows traveled SSE, SE, NE, and S. The next day sporadic explosions continued, inclement weather however prevented visual observations.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


20 November-26 November 2013

INGV reported on the morning of 23 November the 17th paroxysm occurred from Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC), five days after the previous one. The episode was characterized by a rapid evolution from Strombolian activity to lava fountains, an ash plume that rose several kilometers and drifted NE, and lava flows that were significantly less extensive than those emitted during the 16-17 November paroxysm.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


13 November-19 November 2013

INGV reported that weak Strombolian explosions from Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) were visible on 13 November. INGV-Osservatorio Etneo staff visited the area the next day and noted that explosions were heard one to three times per minute, and during times of good visibility no pyroclastic material was ejected. Sporadic ejections of incandescent pyroclastics were observed after nightfall. Early on 16 November Strombolian activity gradually intensified; however, only pulsating puffs of vapor, but no ash, were produced.

On 17 November a new paroxysmal eruptive episode was characterized by violent Strombolian activity and pulsating lava fountains, emission of lava flows that traveled S, ESE, and NE, and the formation of an eruption column charged with pyroclastic material that drifted NE. The episode ended with a long series of powerful explosions and loud bangs heard tens of kilometers away. Strombolian activity continued until the late evening; after nightfall, a small lava flow issued from an effusive vent located on the lower E flank of the NSEC cone.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


6 November-12 November 2013

INGV reported that ash emissions from Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) occurred at 1251 and 1254 on 6 November and were quickly dispersed by the wind. During 6-7 November several phases of frequent explosions produced ash puffs visible during the daytime and ejected incandescent material from Strombolian activity was visible at night. On 8 November the explosions occurred at intervals of several hours, producing small ash plumes that rose a few hundred meters above the summit and drifted ENE.

A culminating phase of lava fountains, ash emissions, and lava flows began at 0500 on 11 November, after about 10 hours of gradually intensifying Strombolian activity. Weather conditions prevented visual observations, but a strong increase in the volcanic tremor amplitude was detected. The phase of maximum intensity lasted about 7.5 hours, ending around 1130; the cessation of lava fountaining was followed by a long series of powerful explosions that generated loud bangs heard mostly in the N sector of the volcano. Ash and lapilli fell in areas E and NE. A voluminous lava flow expanded S from the NSEC, and two smaller lava flows traveled ESE and NE. Vigorous Strombolian activity continued, with explosions at intervals of 1-2 minutes, which launched incandescent material as high as 150 m above the crater rim. At night during 11-12 November Strombolian activity ceased and the lava flows were no longer active.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


30 October-5 November 2013

INGV reported on 5 November that, after 10 days of relative quiescence, the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) showed signs of activity. A brief glow seen on surveillance cameras was followed by ash emissions. The event was accompanied by a strong seismic signal detected by summit seismic stations. Poor weather prevented additional observations.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


23 October-29 October 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on 26 October Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) produced a new episode of lava fountaining, six months after the previous paroxysm. A gas plume laden with pyroclastic material rose several kilometers above the summit and drifted SW, affecting population centers as far as the Caltanissetta area. According to a news article a representative from Catania airport noted that the eruption caused the closure of nearby airspace before dawn through the early morning.

Lava emitted from the saddle between the two cones of the Southeast Crater advanced S, destroying two wooden shacks at Torre del Filosofo. Another smaller lava flow descended the SE flank of the NSEC cone, partially filling the deep collapse scar formed during the 27 April 2013 paroxysm. At 1019 vigorous ash emissions from the Northeast Crater formed a dark brown plume that rose 1 km; ash emissions from that crater continued through late evening. Lava fountaining from NSEC continued through the late morning and was then followed by a long series of powerful explosions audible to many tens of kilometers away. Strombolian explosions occurred in the late evening. Lava flows continued to advance the next day.

Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Kasa


4 September-10 September 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that a series of small and sporadic ash emissions from Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) began during the morning of 3 September, marking the end of four months of complete quiescence. Weak Strombolian activity from NSEC was observed during the early morning of 6 September. At daybreak small ash puffs were emitted once or twice per hour. The same morning intense incandescence emanated from Bocca Nuova. The report stated that since early May only degassing from the summit craters was noted, along with usual bangs and rumblings from deep within the conduit of the Northeast Crater (NEC), which during the past few weeks had become more continuous and louder.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


24 April-30 April 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the thirteenth lava-fountaining episode of 2013 began at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on 27 April. Activity increased on 21 April and was characterized by Strombolian explosions and frequent ash emissions. Eruptive activity and the volcanic tremor amplitude gradually increased in the evening of 26 April. Just after sunset on 27 April lava fountains rose 300-500 m, and lava flows from the SE and NE flanks of the NSEC cone and from the saddle between the two Southeast Crater (SEC) cones traveled S and N.

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the thirteenth lava-fountaining episode of 2013 began at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on 27 April. Activity increased on 21 April and was characterized by Strombolian explosions and frequent ash emissions. Eruptive activity and the volcanic tremor amplitude gradually increased in the evening of 26 April. Just after sunset on 27 April lava fountains rose 300-500 m, and lava flows from the SE and NE flanks of the NSEC cone and from the saddle between the two Southeast Crater (SEC) cones traveled S and N.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


17 April-23 April 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the eleventh lava-fountaining episode of 2013 began at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on 18 April. Activity increased on 16 April with ejected incandescent tephra and small ash puffs from a vent inside NSEC, followed by weak Strombolian explosions. Strombolian explosions became more frequent and intense on the morning of 18 April and then were almost continuous by 1300. During the next two hours lava fountains developed and a dense plume drifted SSW. Ash and lapilli fell in between the villages of Ragalna, Belper, and Paterno, as well as the tourist area "Etna Sud." Lapilli-fall was a few centimeters deep and clasts were at most 5 cm in diameter. Three lava flows were produced; the largest flowed through the deep notch in the SE rim of the crater and traveled 4 km towards the Valle del Bove. The interaction of the lava with snow led to rapid melting, generating small lahars. The two other lava flows originated in the saddle between the two SEC cones; one traveled N and the other S. After the lava fountains ceased, strong explosions were heard the rest of the day. On 19 April explosions produced little puffs of ash and ejected hot tephra.

The twelfth episode occurred two days later during the late afternoon of 20 April. Intermittent explosions ejected incandescent tephra and generated small ash puffs on 19 April. During the evening a large dark plume rose from NSEC, and sporadic Strombolian explosions were observed. The explosive activity ceased in the late evening, but shortly afterwards the lower of the two effusive vents at the base of the NSEC cone produced a lava flow that traveled 1.5 km towards the Valle del Bove. Around 1700 ash puffs rose from the crater, followed by incandescent tephra ejected at 1713. Within a few minutes sustained lava fountains were observed, along with a tall eruption plume that drifted E. Ash and lapilli fell over a wide area to the E, including along the Ionian coastline, just S of Guardia Mangano, up to Fiumefreddo, including the towns of Taormina, Ripon, and Mascali, and further upstream, including Santa Venerina, Zafferana, Milo, and Sant'Alfio.

On 20 April several lava flows on the W wall of the Valle del Bove interacted with the snow, generating explosions and lahars. Around 1815 lava-fountain activity decreased and turned into explosions and ash emissions. At 1840 the paroxysm was over. In the evening, the lava flow emitted from the effusive vent at the base of the SE part of the NSEC cone was still well-fed. Poor weather conditions prevented visual observations until the evening of 21 April, when surveillance videos showed sporadic Strombolian explosions accompanied by small ash puffs at the NSEC, and the emission of a small lava flow from the base of the cone.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


10 April-16 April 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the tenth eruptive episode of 2013 began at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on 8 April with sporadic ash emissions occasionally accompanied by incandescent material. A large explosion at 2252 was heard up to 15 km away. The ash emissions continued for about 48 hours. In the late afternoon on 10 April Strombolian activity began, producing minor ash emissions during some of the explosions. In the morning on 11 April Strombolian explosions occurred about every 2-5 seconds, ejecting incandescent pyroclastics several tens of meters above the crater rim. Strombolian activity increased slowly in intensity and frequency of explosions throughout the day; contemporaneously the volcanic tremor amplitude continued to show a gradual rise. Late in the afternoon frequent and very powerful Strombolian explosions occurred every 1-2 seconds and were widely audible around the volcano. Jets of incandescent pyroclastics often rose 200 m above the crater rim and generally contained minor amounts of ash. Around 1840, a small amount of lava flowed over the deep breach in the SE rim of the crater. In the late evening it stopped and showed evidence of cooling.

Around 0110 on 12 April another small lava flow traveled S then SE from the saddle between the two cones of the Southeast Crater (SEC). Throughout the night powerful explosions alternated with intermittent, low lava fountains. At daybreak on 12 April a dense eruption plume containing relatively minor amounts of pyroclastic material drifted ESE. Until about 1025 on 12 April, all eruptive activity occurred exclusively at one or two closely spaced vents within the NSEC, then lava was emitted from two vents at the NE base of the NSEC cone. At 1024 a flow of hot pyroclastic material from the same area traveled about 2 km NE in less than 1 minute.

In the meantime, eruptive activity continued at the NSEC with frequent, powerful Strombolian explosions and emission of modest quantities of volcanic ash, which was rapidly dispersed. Lava emission from the SSE rim of the NSEC, the saddle, and the NE base of the cone remained active. Shortly before 1200, the eruptive activity changed from low lava fountains to Strombolian explosions and intermittent ash emissions. Vigorous ash emissions resumed at 1214 both from the main vent of the NSEC and from the saddle vent. Expulsion of blocks, bombs and ash from the saddle vent continued until 1234, when the main vent of the NSEC reactivated, and for the next nearly 20 minutes both vents were the source intense ash emissions.

The activity shifted back entirely to NSEC, entering into the true paroxysmal phase of this episode at 1250 with sustained lava fountaining, accompanied by a return to high levels of the volcanic tremor amplitude. During the following 10 minutes, there was a considerable increase in the quantity of pyroclastic material in the plume, which drifted ESE. Tephra fall (ash and small lapilli) affected Fleri, Zafferana Etnea, Milo and S. Maria la Scala, although the quantity of fallout was much smaller compared to those of the previous paroxysms. Sustained lava fountaining continued for about one hour; a few minutes after 1400 the activity switched to sporadic Strombolian explosions and ash emissions, which gradually diminished in vigor. During 1400 and 1410, repeated collapses occurred on the SE flank of the NSEC cone, possibly from new vents at the base of the cone, from which a new lava flow traveled toward the Valle del Bove. The collapses generated avalanches and clouds ash. Explosive activity progressively diminished and completely ceased around 1700.

On the evening of 12 April, the lava flows emitted from the saddle and from the various vents on the flanks of the cone were incandescent and slowly moving; during the night, the surveillance cameras showed the cessation of all lava emission and the cooling of the flows. However, on the morning of 13 April, slow lava effusion resumed from the lower of the vents and a small flow advanced a few hundred meters. This flow ceased in the early morning hours the following day. Once more, on the evening of 14 April, there was a rather weak resumption of effusive activity from this vent, which ceased after a few hours.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


3 April-9 April 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on 3 April, after almost 18 days of relative quiet, the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) of Etna produced its ninth episode of lava fountaining. Activity had increased on 2 April when small grayish-brown puffs rose from NSEC. Cloud cover prevented further visual observations through the following night; however, sporadic glow suggested Strombolian activity. On the morning of 3 April, the volcanic tremor amplitude slowly increased and was accompanied by numerous explosion signals. Field observations revealed that at 1330 vigorous Strombolian activity was occurring at one or two NSEC vents, with jets of pyroclastic material rising up to a few tens of meters above the crater rim. The activity progressively intensified between 1400 and 1430, with frequent, powerful Strombolian explosions often generating loud bangs and launching great quantities of incandescent bombs (with diameters of many meters) onto the flanks of the cone. Shortly after 1435, ash emission started from the saddle vent (SV), followed a few minutes later by Strombolian explosions from the same vent. At 1450, a continuous jet of incandescent lava fountained up to 100 m, whereas the vents within NSEC continued to produce powerful loud explosions. At around 1505 a lava flow moved through the deep breach in the SE rim of NSEC and then traveled over the W rim of the Valle del Bove. During the same time interval, lava emissions started from SV, feeding a flow that went S.

Since 1430 the eruptive plume drifted SE and contained modest amounts of volcanic ash. At around 1540 ash emissions progressively increased and the volcanic tremor amplitude showed a rapid rise. Between 1540 and 1615 low lava fountaining continued from SV, whereas the vents within NSEC emitted intermittent, pulsating lava fountains. The incandescent jets from the vents within NSEC rose up to 400 m above the crater rim. At 1615, lava fountaining at SV intensified, with jets rising 400-500 m high. Explosions from the vents within NSEC continued, producing loud detonations every 1-2 seconds.

Lava fountaining significantly decreased between 1625 and 1628 when a new eruptive vent (NV) opened a few tens of meters to the W of SV, on the E slope of the old SEC cone, and emitted grayish-brown ash. A dense cloud of pyroclastic material emitted by NSEC vents and SV rose about 2 km high and drifted SE. Fallout of pyroclastic material affected almost the same area that had already been subjected to the heavy shower of lapilli on 16 March: Zafferana Etnea and Santa Venerina on the SE flank, and the N part of Acireale plus a number of smaller villages to the N at the S margin of Giarre, in the Ionian area. The deposit was thinner than that of 16 March, and the dimensions of the lapilli were notably smaller.

Between 1630 and 1640, the eruptive activity reached a new peak of intensity with sustained lava fountains from SV and powerful explosions from the vents within the NSEC. At 1637 a thermal surveillance camera recorded a pyroclastic flow from the NE flank of the NSEC cone. Two lava flows emerged from the same area and traveled toward the Valle del Bove.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


13 March-19 March 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that Strombolian activity continued at Etna's Voragine Crater after the 5-6 March paroxysm at the New Southeast Crater (NSEC), but was rarely detected by 14 March. Sometime during the afternoon of 15 March, numerous explosion signals were detected, and the volcanic tremor amplitude increased through the evening. After nightfall, incandescence from the NSEC was visible, and nearby residents (on the SE flank) heard loud bangs coming from the crater. This activity continued during the night and through the following morning. At daybreak on 16 March, numerous gas rings formed by the more powerful explosions were recorded by the monitoring cameras and photographed by observers in the field.

During the early afternoon of 16 March, activity started to intensify more rapidly, and frequent jets of incandescent lava were launched up to150 m above the crater rim. At about 1800 lava started to flow through the deep breach in the SE rim of NSEC. Approximately 15 minutes later, explosions became progressively more energetic, ejecting incandescent bombs onto the outer flanks of the cone; contemporaneously, the quantity of pyroclastic material (ash and lapilli) in the eruptive plume increased. Ash plumes drifted SE.

Between 1830 and 1845, the eruptive activity changed from Strombolian explosions to lava fountaining, with the highest jets rising 600-800 m above the crater rim. The eruption column rose about 2 km above the summit of Etna before it was blown SE by the strong winds. Around 1900, several lightning flashes within the eruptive cloud were observed. Large, incandescent bombs and scoriae were deposited on the entire cone of the NSEC and the adjacent areas to the S and SE. Observations made after the end of the paroxysm revealed that a lava flow was emitted from the area of the saddle between the SEC cones. During the phase of most intense lava fountaining, numerous volcanic bombs fell onto the pyroclastic cones formed during the 2002-2003 eruption, up to 2 km from the NSEC. In this phase, the lava fountains were also spectacularly visible from the town of Randazzo, on the NNE flank, about 15 km from the NSEC.

Heavy tephra fall, mostly in the form of scoriaceous lapilli, affected the SE flank; on the W headwall of the Valle del Bove this material was still incandescent. Further downslope, in the towns of Zafferana Etnea, Santa Venerina, and a number of villages to the N of Acireale, the tephra fallout formed a continuous deposit of scoriaceous lapilli, which in the N portion of Zafferana Etnea locally was up to 10 cm thick. Many clasts in this area had diameters from 5 to 8 cm, and more rarely up to 10 cm. Numerous car windshields, skylights, and roof tiles were broken. Even on the Ionian coast, the deposit consisted largely of lapilli, with only a minor fraction of ash.

The activity started to decrease around 1904, and at 1910 the activity evolved into violent explosions that ejected broad fans of large, incandescent bombs, accompanied by loud bangs and detonations. These explosions ceased at 1920, but at 1927 two particularly powerful explosions ejected large incandescent rock fragments towards the SW at least 1.5 km from the crater. A few weaker Strombolian explosions occurred shortly after 1930. At 0449 on 17 March, a series of explosions started at Voragine, which continued for about 5 minutes, generating strong thermal anomalies that were recorded by the thermal surveillance camera, and probably produced small ash puffs. During the next few hours, weak glow coming from Voragine was recorded by a monitoring camera. There were also small collapses and slides of still hot material from unstable portions on the NSEC cone, which generated minor quantities of ash.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


6 March-12 March 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that during 5-6 March a new episode of lava fountaining occurred at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC). On 5 March an explosion from the vent in the W part of NSEC was detected at 1854 and ejected incandescent bombs several tens of meters above the crater rim. This explosion was followed by similar ones, initially separated by intervals of 15-20 minutes, but then gradually became more frequent. As the evening went on, the activity at NSEC progressively intensified; likewise, the volcanic tremor amplitude started to rise. Around 0012 on 6 March, lava started to flow from the saddle between the two SEC cones; a few minutes later, an eruptive fissure with several vents opened in the lower portion of the saddle. Lava jets became continuous around 0017, forming a fountain that rose 200-300 m above the crater rim. Various vents were active within the NSEC, in the saddle area, and at the base of the saddle, from where a voluminous lava flow expanded S and SE. Around 0100 this lava flow had reached the area of Belvedere station. Lava also flowed through the breach in the SE rim of NSEC.

For the next 30 minutes, lava fountaining continued with jets rising 600 to 800 m above the crater. An eruption column heavily laden with pyroclastic material rose several kilometers above the summit and drifted NE. Deposition was intense on the upper NE flank of Etna, covering the area of the Valle del Leone, Pizzi Deneri, and Serra delle Concazze with incandescent bombs and scoriae. Further downslope, at Linguaglossa, scoria with diameters of several centimeters fell, and ash and lapilli fall was also observed at Piedimonte Etneo, Fiumefreddo, Taormina, and other towns along the Messinian Ionian coast.

Just after 0100, and within a few minutes, explosive activity nearly ceased, with only a few weak Strombolian explosions. During the same time, however, an eruptive vent opened on the lower E flank of the NSEC cone, which produced vigorous spattering and a well-fed lava flow that advanced SE. This activity continued at a slowly decreasing rate for a few days and ceased altogether on 9 March.

At the Voragine, Strombolian activity continued after the 5-6 March paroxysm at NSEC, but then alternated with short episodes of intense Strombolian activity and nearly totally quiet intervals. These oscillations were reflected in the volcanic tremor amplitude, which during the 24 hours following the paroxysmal episode at the NSEC showed about twenty small peaks.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


27 February-5 March 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that seismic activity at Etna's Bocca Nuova Crater (BN) gradually increased at night during 26-27 February. Copious, puffing emission of dense vapor from BN observed at sunrise slowly grew more energetic over the next few hours. Between 1030 and 1045, the volcanic tremor amplitude rapidly rose; at the same time an eruption column largely composed of vapor formed and hot material was ejected. The plume contained moderate amounts of reddish-brown volcanic ash, mostly during 1215-1220 and 1314-1316, which led to the fall of small quantities of very fine ash on the SE flank between Zafferana and Santa Venerina. These ash emissions likely resulted from collapse or sliding of unstable material on the steep inner crater wall; the eruptive vent, which lies in the SE part of the crater, is leaning against the wall and the rapid accumulation of pyroclastic deposits in that area might have facilitated collapses.

During the phase of most intense eruptive activity, INGV staff carrying out fieldwork in the summit area, noted that volcanic bombs fell outside the crater rim onto the SW flank of the central cone. Intense explosive activity was also observed within the Voragine (VOR), which since early October 1999 had not exhibited magmatic activity. The activity began to diminish around 1320, evident from a reduction in the volcanic tremor amplitude; at 1430, the episode was essentially over, even though strong degassing continued at both BN and VOR. During the evening of 27 February vigorous Strombolian activity in VOR was reported by observers on the W and E flanks. Minor and discontinuous Strombolian activity also occurred at BN which often launched incandescent volcanic bombs up to 150 m above the crater rim. The activity continued through the night, into at least early 28 February, when NSEC also started showing signs of renewed activity after more than four days of repose.

Weak explosive activity and sporadic weak ash emissions at New SE Crater (NSEC) were observed during the early morning hours of 28 February. Weak Strombolian activity in the W part of the NSEC appeared at 0917. Thirteen minutes later Strombolian activity was occurring at the main vent in the center of NSEC. Contemporaneously, the volcanic tremor amplitude started to rise. During the following hour, eruptive activity gradually increased, while the volcanic tremor amplitude increased rapidly; at 1030, at least three vents were erupting including the former "pittino" to the W, in the saddle between the old SEC cone and NSEC cone. This activity generated a dense gas plume containing modest quantities of ash. At 1040 lava flowed through the through the deep breach cutting the SE crater rim; 25 minutes later, explosive activity increased dramatically and lava fountains rose about 100 m above the crater rim. From 1115 on, frequent powerful explosions generated visible shock waves and heavily showered the NSEC cone with large volcanic bombs. The activity intensified further between 1117 and 1122, accompanied by a conspicuous cloud of vapor and brown ash issued from the saddle between the two SEC cones. This cloud marked the progressive collapse of a large portion of the saddle, which destroyed nearly all of the SW flank of the NSEC cone, and parts of the E flank of the old SEC cone. Voluminous amounts of lava flowed from the deep notch left by the collapse, expanding first S and then SE, in the direction of the Belvedere monitoring station. Lava was also emitted from the eruptive vents at the base of the NSEC cone; this lava mixed with the flow emitted directly from the NSEC toward SE.

Sustained lava fountaining, with intense pyroclastic fallout and the generation of a huge cloud of gas and ash, continued at maximum intensity for about 20 minutes. The ash cloud drifted E, leading to abundant ash and scoria fall in the Milo-Fornazzo and Giarre-Riposto areas. At 1142 the activity started to diminish, although dense clouds of vapor and grayish-brown ash were emitted from the collapsed saddle area. At about 1150, the activity at the "pittino" became phreatomagmatic; vapor and ash were emitted and hot, wet blocks that formed spectacular vapor trails were ejected. Shortly after 1200, explosive activity at the NSEC ceased, whereas lava emission continued from the collapsed saddle area as well as from the SE flank of the NSEC cone, at a slowly diminishing rate. The lava flows continued to advance during the night of 28 February-1 March, and ceased sometime during 1 March. Strombolian activity within the VOR continued without significant variations, and was observed by INGV staff during a field visit on the morning of 1 March, at least through 1500 on 3 March.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


20 February-26 February 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported two episodes of lava fountaining from Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on 20 February. The first episode's most energetic phase occurred during 0150-0235, producing an ash plume that drifted ESE, small lahars, lava flows from the fissure cutting the SE crater rim, and lava flows from a new eruptive fissure which opened on the lower SW flank of the cone. After the cessation of lava fountaining, weak spattering and low-rate lava emission continued from two small fissures at the SE base of the cone. During the late morning, eruptive activity at NSEC re-intensified. The second episode began just after 1415 and ended at about 1450. An ash cloud drifted E, and new lava flows traveled towards the Valle del Bove, following the paths of previous flows. Slow-moving lava flows from the fissures at the SE base of the NSEC continued into the next day, accompanied by sporadic, weak Strombolian explosions at the NSEC.

At 0233 on 21 February a new vent opened high on the W slope of the Valle del Bove and produced a lava flow that melted snow, creating lahars and voluminous steam plumes. At about 0300 Strombolian activity resumed at the NSEC; the activity became virtually continuous by 0440 and produced jets of incandescent lava that rose at most 100 m above the crater rim. Cloud cover periodically prevented observations, but at 0540 the clouds were illuminated, and at 0545 a lava flow emerged from the cloud cover. An ash plume drifted N, causing ashfall in the area between Randazzo (15 km NNE) and Linguaglossa (7 km NE), at Patti on the Tyrrhenian (N coast of Sicily), and as far as Lipari (more than 80 km N). Scoria clasts up to 15 cm in diameter also fell in Linguaglossa. After the cessation of this fourth paroxysm in just over two days, effusive activity continued from the eruptive vents, feeding two lava flows that traveled 2.5 km down to the base of the steep W slope of the Valle del Bove. This activity, accompanied by sporadic small Strombolian explosions at the NSEC, continued into the morning of 22 February.

At about 0700 on 22 February, rising tremor amplitude signaled the onset of a new episode, but from Bocca Nuova. Between 0730 and 0815 many vapor puffs and thermal anomalies were observed. Cloud cover prevented clear views, but mild Strombolian activity was likely occurring within the crater. At about 0815 the volcanic tremor amplitude started decreasing and the gas emissions from Bocca Nuova became less conspicuous. Contemporaneously, the emission of lava from the two effusive vents at the SE base of the NSEC cone and below the Belvedere station decreased and completely ceased during the afternoon of 22 February.

At about 1625 on 23 February thermal anomalies were detected from NSEC and 15 minutes later lava was visible from the vent at the SE base of the NSEC cone. By nightfall the lava flow and Strombolian activity were visible from populated areas on the S and E flanks, although cloud cover hampered views. Activity intensified during 1900-1930; lava fountains rose at most 150 m above the crater rim and a well-fed lava flow spilled through the breach in the SE crater rim and traveled toward the W slope of the Valle del Bove. Within the next 10 minutes jets of lava rose 500-800 m above the rim. During that time, the emission of pyroclastic material increased dramatically, forming a dense plume that drifted NE; the entire NE flank, from the NSEC to Pizzi Deneri and beyond, was covered with a sheet of incandescent material. Eyewitnesses also reported the fall of large clasts, some incandescent, in the area of Monte Baracca, ~5 km NE of the NSEC. High lava fountaining continued for about 35 minutes. At 2014 the height of the lava fountains rapidly decreased, and two minutes later, the activity had changed to Strombolian explosions that ejected incandescent tephra up to 100 m above the crater rim. At 2030 all explosive activity was essentially over. During the morning of 24 February, the lava flow emitted from NSEC continued to be fed, probably by one or more vents near Belvedere.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


13 February-19 February 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that during the evenings of 13 and 14 February a camera recorded incandescence from Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC). In the early hours of 15 February incandescent bombs were ejected just higher than the crater rim. Strombolian activity gradually intensified on 17 February along with volcanic tremor amplitude. Small Strombolian explosions occurred every 1-2 seconds at daybreak, launching coarse-grained pyroclastic material a few tens of meters above the crater rim. After reaching a peak around 0700, activity started to diminish; a few hours later, the volcanic tremor amplitude returned to background levels, and by the evening there was no sign of eruptive activity.

Shortly before midnight on 18 February, the clouds dissipated from the summit area, revealing continuous weak Strombolian activity within NSEC. During 0000-0200 on 19 February the volcanic tremor amplitude rose gradually, then distinctly increased after 0200. Contemporaneously, the eruptive activity started to intensify from one vent in the center of the crater. About 10 minutes later, lava started to overflow through the deep notch in the SE crater rim, expanding slowly toward the steep W slope of the Valle del Bove. At 0457 the small pit crater that had formed on the SW rim of the NSEC on 27 August 2012 started to emit ash, and repeated rim collapses generated small landslides. Activity of the main vent within the crater rapidly increased, and at 0503 a lava fountain rose about 200 m above the summit of the cone.

During the interval from 0503 until 0507, several vents became active along a fracture from the pit crater to the notch in the SE crater rim. A dense cloud of ash rose and drifted E. Next, the entire NSEC cone was subjected to heavy fallout of coarse-grained pyroclastic material. The main lava flow advanced SE, and a small lava flow that developed on the flank below the pit crater traveled along the March 2012 fracture zone between the old and new SEC cones. At 0515 lava fountains rose 300-500 m above the crater rim and produced bombs and spatter that covered the S flank of the cone. Small avalanches of this incandescent material generated ash clouds. During 0516-0518 the S flank of the cone was veiled by a dense curtain of fallout from the lava fountains. At the same time, dense vapor clouds rose from the upper E flank of Etna, generated by the copious fallout of incandescent pyroclastic material onto the snow.

At 0519, a more substantial avalanche of fresh material detached from the S flank of the cone, generating a small pyroclastic flow that expanded a few hundred meters first S and then E. At 0536 a thermal monitoring camera recorded a lahar from near the Belvedere area, which was followed by a broad lava flow that descended the steep slope and reached the base after less than 20 minutes. During its descent, the lava continued to melt snow, producing numerous small lahars. At 0550 a second lava flow N of the first also generated lahars. Finally, at about 0600, a third lava flow, which generated a lahar, descended the W slope of the Valle del Bove to the S of the first flow.

Lava fountaining from the pit crater started to diminish around 0525, and at 0535 transitioned into ash emissions alternating with brief jets of incandescent lava. At 0545, one single vent, in the central portion of the NSEC, continued to produce lava fountains about 200 m high. A few minutes later, however, a new lava flow started to descend the lower SE flank of the cone, possibly after the opening of a new eruptive vent in the lower part of the notch cutting that sector of the cone. Surveillance cameras showed brief lava fountaining at that site, before all lava fountaining ceased shortly before 0600. During the interval between 0600 and 0615, the activity was characterized by emission of a dense ash plume with frequent jets of lava and powerful explosions, which launched large glowing bombs beyond the summit of the old Southeast Crater cone. After 0615 only ash emission persisted. At 0622 a puff of ash was emitted from the Bocca Nuova; shortly thereafter, ash emissions from the NSEC diminished notably and became discontinuous; the last, weak puffs of ash were observed around 0710. Slow lava emissions continued for a few more hours from the lowermost vent, which had opened shortly after 0547 on the SE flank of the cone. During the late afternoon of 19 February, small ash puffs were again emitted from the Bocca Nuova. Tephra fell in a narrow area extending from the NSEC towards the E, including Milo and Fornazzo (10 km E), Giarre (16 km E) and Riposto (18 km E).

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


6 February-12 February 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that during the days following the 2 February eruptive episode at Etna intermittent emissions of small quantities of ash were repeatedly observed from both the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and Bocca Nuova Crater.

Volcanologists visited Etna on 5 February and observed the recent changes that had taken place at Bocca Nuova Crater, notably the growth of a pyroclastic cone surrounding the eruptive vent in the SE portion of the crater. This cone had grown at least 50-70 m, about halfway up the inner crater wall, and was leaning into the wall. The entire crater floor was covered with recent lava.

Later in the evening of 5 February a webcam recorded weak Strombolian activity at NSEC, which continued until daybreak the next day, and then became invisible due to deteriorating weather conditions. Seismic data showed an instantaneous increase of tremor at 1020; volcanic tremor amplitude rose to a peak within a few minutes after the start of the activity, and began to descend after less than one hour. People in the ski area on the NE flank of the volcano briefly saw a dense but ash-free gas plume rising from the summit.

After the episode on 6 February through most of 8 February sporadic ash emissions from NSEC were observed, although poor weather conditions often prevented observations. On the evening of 8 February weak glow from NSEC was intermittently visible. At 2100 a webcam recorded fluctuating glow from within Bocca Nuova which became more intense over the next 10 minutes. Around 2125 jets of incandescent lava were repeatedly seen rising above a thick blanket of clouds drifting over the summit area of Etna. Contemporaneously, the volcanic tremor amplitude rose sharply. After 2200 the volcanic tremor amplitude began to decrease, whereas the eruptive activity continued without showing signs of diminishing until about 30 minutes later. After 2230 on 8 February and during 9-10 cloud cover prevented observations. A brief ash emission was observed on 10 February.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


30 January-5 February 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that intense Strombolian activity at Etna's Bocca Nuova Crater began on the evening of 30 January and was the fifth episode of activity during a three-week interval that began on 10 January. Weak glow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor was first observed at 1807. The glow became stronger and was visible to nearby residents; simultaneously volcanic tremor amplitude rapidly increased, and shifted from below the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) toward Bocca Nuova. Between 1900 and 1915 the activity intensified, and from 1920 onward jets of incandescent volcanic bombs and scoria nearly continuously rose higher than the crater rim. Some tephra was ejected 150 m above the rim.

During 1930-2000, lava fountains rose 100 m above the rim. Shortly after 2000, the fountain leaned SW and produced heavy fallout of incandescent bombs and scoria on the outer SW flank of the central summit cone, down to its base. At 2016 the fountain rose vertically and pyroclastic fallout outside the crater diminished.

Around 2030 the lava fountain started to wane; the incandescent jets became discontinuous and only rarely rose more than 100 m above the crater rim, except for one jet, at 2100, which rose 150 m above the rim. In addition, the volcanic tremor amplitude rapidly decreased and returned to normal levels in the late evening. After 2200, the incandescent pyroclastic jets no longer rose above the crater rim, and the glow became progressively less brilliant. During the night, however, weak eruptive activity continued on the crater floor, evident from a dull glow emanating from the crater. During the early morning hours of 31 January, the glow gradually faded away, and the episode ended with a series of sporadic, small ash emissions, the last of which was seen around 0641.

During 31 January-1 February ash emissions at New Southeast Crater (NSEC) were nearly continuous for intervals lasting from a few minutes to more than one hour. On 1 February small discrete "puffs" of ash rose from Bocca Nuova. At both craters ash plumes rose no higher than 100 m above the crater rims.

At 0300 on 2 February a camera recorded weak glow from NSEC then after 0330 sporadic small explosions ejected incandescent pyroclastic material up to a few tens of meters above the crater rim. The strongest explosions (at 0345, 0400, 0409, and 0411) ejected glowing bombs onto the flanks of the NSEC cone. Two minutes after the last of the explosions, weak glow appeared at Bocca Nuova that only lasted a short time; during the following 30 minutes, however, intermittent glow was recorded at both craters. At 0450 jets of lava rose above the rim of Bocca Nuova; at 0500 Strombolian activity became continuous, producing jest that rose many tens of meters above the rim. Small Strombolian explosions resumed in NSCE at 0512. Just after 0515 activity at Bocca Nuova started to increase rapidly; contemporaneously, the volcanic tremor amplitude showed a sharp rise. Lava fountains rose 120-150 m above the rim. Activity at NSEC started to decrease at 0530 then ceased just before 0600. Activity at Bocca Nuova decreased markedly between 0620 and 0630; weak intracrater activity continued for a few more hours and then by 0900 the episode was over.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


23 January-29 January 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that two episodes of Strombolian activity from Etna's Bocca Nuova Crater occurred during the evenings of 16 and 18 January. Both began with a sudden increase in volcanic tremor amplitude. Poor weather conditions prevented direct observations; the only visible evidence was a bright glow illuminating the clouds covering the summit. On 18 January some clasts were ejected onto the S outer slope of the central summit cone.

On the early morning of 20 January volcanic tremor amplitude again rose, and was much more pronounced at the EBEL station about 700 m from the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) than at the ECPN station much closer to Bocca Nuova. Contemporaneously, there were reports of glow illuminating the clouds over the summit of Etna. Seismic and infrasonic data analyses suggested that the activity occurred at NSEC and consisted of mild Strombolian explosions, which ceased a few hours later.

The next episode began at 22 January. Tremor rapidly rose at 1840 again producing a stronger signal at the EBEL station. Glow from Strombolian activity was first recorded by a camera at 1856; the activity then became more clearly visible and the Strombolian explosions became more frequent. Incandescent bombs were ejected as high as 100 m above the crater rim. The strongest explosions were followed by abundant fallout of coarse-grained tephra onto the flanks of the NSEC cone. Eruptive activity continued for nearly 12 hours with minor fluctuations. Noises produced by the explosions were audible to residents on the E flank. At about 0600 on 23 January the tremor amplitude decreased and the last explosion visible on camera footage was recorded at 0635. During the hour following, a few small, sporadic puffs of vapor mixed with volcanic ash rose from the crater and drifted E.

The two episodes of Strombolian activity at the New Southeast Crater during 20 and 22-23 January represented the first emission of new magmatic products after a quiet interval of nearly nine months. During the past few months, signs of a possible reactivation of the crater were observed, starting with a dull glow coming from within the crater on 22 November 2012 and a series of small vapor and ash emissions during 25-27 December 2012. A short-lived episode of intense glow occurred on the evening of 3 January 2013.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


9 January-15 January 2013

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that during 22 November-early December 2012 weak glow emanated from Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) caused by the emission of high-temperature gas. The glow was most intense during 1-2 December, then rapidly diminished and reappeared on 24 December. During 25-27 December sporadic and weak ash emissions from NSEC were accompanied by increased gas emissions. On the evening of 3 January a strong glow was briefly observed.

Vigorous Strombolian activity at Bocca Nuova Crater began at night during 9-10 January, three months after the last episode. At 0000 on 10 January a rapid rise in tremor amplitude was detected. Ten minutes later a video camera recorded the first incandescent burst in the E part of the crater, which progressively became stronger and more frequent. At 0350 jets of incandescent fragments rose significantly higher than the crater rim. In daylight the phenomenon was no longer visible via the surveillance cameras; the volcanic tremor amplitude remained elevated but started to decrease around 1200. In the early morning of 15 January volcanic tremor amplitude rapidly decreased, marking the cessation of Strombolian activity in the Bocca Nuova Crater.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


21 November-27 November 2012

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on the evening of 21 November, weak glow was observed coming from within Etna's New Southeast Crater, caused either by the emission of high-temperature gas and/or Strombolian activity. Incandescence was also visible during the following nights, but was weak and intermittent.

A seismic swarm, consisting of around seventy events, occurred below the NW flank on 22 November, with epicenters located in the area of Monte Maletto. During a field visit to the summit area on the morning of 23 November, scientists did not hear sounds typically associated with Strombolian activity. In addition, volcanic-tremor amplitude did not show any significant variations.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


10 October-16 October 2012

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on the evening of 2 October weak Strombolian activity resumed within Etna's Bocca Nuova crater, from the same vent on the SE part of the crater floor that was active in July and August 2012. On 3 October the activity was accompanied by a small inter-crater lava flow on the S part of the floor. Over the next few days the activity slowly intensified and a small new cone developed over the old cone formed during July-August, which had subsequently nearly completely collapsed. Volcanic tremor amplitude rapidly increased on the evening of 6 October at the same time eruptive activity intensified. Lava flowed towards the W part of the crater floor and lava fountains pulsated. The intensity of both the eruptive activity and the volcanic tremor amplitude peaked just after midnight on 7 October, and strong glow from the crater was observed from nearby populated areas. Some of the lava jets rose well above the crater rim. Activity decreased at 0430, and the next day dropped to the lowest levels recorded for many weeks.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


15 August-21 August 2012

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that a new phase of activity at Etna's Bocca Nuova summit crater started on 2 July, was virtually continuous for three weeks until 24 July, then rapidly decreased. During the first 10 days explosions were separated by quiet intervals lasting several minutes, then later became more continuous. During periods of the strongest activity, some lava bombs were ejected beyond the crater rim, landing on a gently sloping area E of the crater. Lava was emitted during 4-24 July from vents on the flanks of the pyroclastic cone that had begun to grow around the explosive vent. Rarely, lava was emitted from the main explosive vent. The lava progressively covered the crater floor next to the pyroclastic cone, which had grown 30-40 m, before the activity ceased on 24 July. Frequent ash emissions observed the next day were mostly due to explosions, and possibly from minor collapses of the summit area of the new cone. Concurrent with the decrease in eruptive activity, volcanic tremor amplitude dropped to background levels.

Episodic activity occurred during 26 July-11 August. At daybreak on 26 July, strong incandescence marked the onset of the first episode of activity within Bocca Nuova, which had the same characteristics as the previous activity; frequent Strombolian explosions were accompanied by lava flow emissions from a vent located on the W flank of the cone. The next day, the lava had almost completely filled the central subsidence pit on the floor of Bocca Nuova, and the cone had grown in height. The activity then decreased, and essentially ceased by the evening. There were intermittent ash emissions on 28 July, and volcanic tremor amplitude decreased to background levels.

The second episode, during 29 July-1 August, was characterized by small Strombolian explosions and lava emission from a vent located on the S flank of the pyroclastic cone. Volcanic tremor amplitude showed strong oscillations, but never reached the same peak levels associated with the 26-27 July episode. Volcanic tremor amplitude dropped sharply on 1 August, marking the cessation of the activity; a few ash emissions were observed the next day.

The third episode began on 3 August with a rapid increase in the volcanic tremor amplitude and strong incandescence from Bocca Nuova, signaling the beginning of Strombolian activity and lava emissions onto the crater floor. Activity ceased the next day, and was followed by weak residual activity within Bocca Nuova, which generated small ash clouds. The fourth episode began on 6 August and ended the next day, and showed essentially the same characteristics as the previous episode.

The fifth episode began on 10 August and was again marked by a rapid increase in volcanic tremor amplitude; at nighl, bright glow illuminated the gas plume rising from the crater, which was visible up to tens of kilometers away. Some of the explosions ejected incandescent pyroclastic material well above the crater rim. The activity started to decrease just after midnight and then ended on 11 August. Subsequently, ash emissions resumed, which were particularly frequent on 13 August, and which produced small, brownish-gray clouds of fine-grained tephra. Some of the ash emissions later that evening were accompanied by ejected incandescent material; volcanic tremor amplitude, however, remained at background levels.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


11 July-17 July 2012

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on the evening of 2 July weak incandescence began to illuminate a gas plume rising from Bocca Nuova, marking the resumption of eruptive activity in this crater nearly one year after a short period of Strombolian and effusive activity. Observatory staff visited the crater the next day and observed Strombolian activity from a single vent, a few meters in diameter, at the base of the SE crater wall. Incandescent bombs and scoria ejected by the explosions fell back around the vent.

During the following days, the activity within Bocca Nuova continued with minor fluctuations; on 4 July, a few bombs fell outside the E crater rim, and on 8 July a small lava flow was observed on the flank of the pyroclastic cone growing around the active vent. Similar activity was also observed on 11 and 13 July. On 16 July, the amplitude of the volcanic tremor recorded by the summit seismic network showed a consistent increase, which was accompanied by an intensification of the activity within Bocca Nuova. During the night of 16-17 July, continuous, bright glow from the crater was visible from populated areas around the volcano.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


25 April-1 May 2012

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the twenty-fifth paroxysmal eruptive episode since January 2011 took place at New SE Crater (New SEC) of Etna during the morning of 24 April following about 11 days of quiescence. During 21-22 April a series of small ash emissions observed by web cameras drifted downslope to the E. On 22 April prolonged emissions of white vapor rose from an area in the upper portion of the fissure that cuts the SE flank of the cone. At night several incandescent spots were visible on the NE and S crater rims, where hot gas heated the surrounding rocks. On 23 April a small thermal anomaly in the area of New SE Crater was produced by a tiny lava flow, which issued from the same vent that had produced the prolonged vapor emissions on the previous day. The lava flow slowly advanced a few hundred meters toward the Valle del Bove, but stagnated on the W rim. Another lava flow was produced later that day.

At around 1800 the effusive vent started to vigorously spatter. A second vent became active a few tens of meters further upslope, which initially ejected spatter, but activity rapidly evolved into frequent Strombolian explosions accompanied by a slow rise in the volcanic tremor amplitude. During the following hours, sporadic explosions were also observed from a vent located within the New SEC; the activity remained more or less consistent, while the volcanic tremor amplitude fluctuated at only slightly elevated levels. At 0210 0n 24 April the Strombolian activity showed a marked increase and turned into sustained lava fountaining at 0230. A plume with a heavy load of ash and lapilli rose a few kilometers, drifted NE, and produced ashfall 15-17 km NE in Linguaglossa, Piedimonte, and Presa. The upper part of the plume drifted E and produced pea-sized lapilli fall in the area between Fornazzo (10 km E) and Giarre (17 km E). The phase of most intense lava fountaining lasted approximately 25 minutes, from 0240 until 0305 on 24 April, after which the intensity rapidly decreased and returned to Strombolian activity, before ceasing completely around 0340.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


18 April-24 April 2012

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the twenty-fifth paroxysmal eruptive episode since January 2011 took place at New SE Crater (New SEC) of Etna during the morning of 24 April following about 11 days of quiescence. The episode was characterized by lava fountains, emissions of ash and lapilli, and lava flows that descended the Valle del Bove.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


11 April-17 April 2012

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the twenty-fourth paroxysmal eruptive episode since January 2011 took place at New SE Crater (New SEC) of Etna during the morning of 12 April following about 10 days of quiescence. The episode was characterized by lava fountains, emissions of ash and lapilli, and lava flows that descended the Valle del Bove and explosively interacted with snow cover.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


28 March-3 April 2012

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the twenty-third paroxysmal eruptive episode since January 2011 took place at New SE Crater (New SEC) of Etna during the morning of 1 April following two weeks of quiescence. The episode was characterized by tall lava fountains from vents within the crater and on the SE flank of its cone, a gas-and-tephra plume, and lava flows descending toward the Valle del Bove. The paroxysmal phase lasted about 1.5 hours and ended just before daybreak. Ash and lapilli fell over the SE sector of the volcano, affecting mainly the area between Monterosso and Zafferana Etnea, but also the area between Acireale and Giarre, further downslope.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


14 March-20 March 2012

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the twenty-second paroxysmal eruptive episode since January 2011 took place at New SE Crater (New SEC) of Etna during the morning of 18 March following two weeks of quiescence. Roaring from high-pressure degassing was heard on 16 March. The next day there was incandescence and multiple vapor clouds with minor ash content that rose from New SE Crater. In the early hours of 18 March the incandescence intensified due to Strombolian activity on the crater floor, and volcanic tremor amplitude rapidly increased. Strombolian activity continued to intensify, and just before 0700 lava flowed through the deep breach in the SE crater rim. At about 0825 the ash content in the gas plume rising from the crater became more significant and pulsating lava fountains from a vent on the crater floor rose about 100 m high. Shortly before 0900 two vents were active within the crater and a jet of lava was emitted from another vent within the breach in the SE crater rim.

During 0900-0915 lava fountaining was essentially continuous from all three vents. An intense shower of coarse-grained pyroclastic material falling onto the N and NE flanks of the cone generated avalanches and clouds of rock and dust, which traveled to the base of the cone. A plume rose 4-5 km above Etna and drifted E. Ash and lapilli fell mainly in the area between the villages of Zafferana Etnea and Sant'Alfio, extending toward the Ionian Sea between Riposto and Pozzillo.

The main lava flow descended the steep W slope of the Valle del Bove. Several lava lobes, however, took a more northerly path to areas covered with thick snow. The interaction of the lava and snow led to rapid melting of the snow, generating small lahars, and strong explosions that produced ground-hugging vapor-and-ash clouds resembling pyroclastic flows, which repeatedly descended on the floor of the Valle del Bove. The vapor-and-ash clouds rose 1-1.5 km above the floor of the Valle del Bove. This phenomenon continued intermittently for some time after the cessation of the lava fountaining and ash emission, until about 1130.

Lava fountaining and strong ash emission continued without significant variations until about 1040; afterwards the activity rapidly diminished in intensity, and the last ash clouds were observed around 1110. Similar to the previous episodes, the lava that flowed through the breach in the SE crater rim advanced for several hours after the cessation of the paroxysmal activity into the upper part of the Valle del Bove. The lava reached a distance of about 4 km from the source, stagnating S of Monte Centenari. A small lava flow, emitted from a fracture on the N flank of the cone, followed the same path as a flow emitted from the same fracture during the 4 March paroxysm, and traveled a few hundred meters.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


29 February-6 March 2012

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the third episode of lava fountaining from Etna's New Southeast Crater (New SEC) occurred on the morning of 4 March and was more explosive than the preceding episode. The beginning of the eruption was characterized by a rapid increase in volcanic tremor amplitude coincident with Strombolian explosions that increased in intensity and frequency. Just after 0800 lava overflowed the deep breach in the SE rim of the crater and reached the SE base of the cone within 15 minutes, then advanced towards the W rim of the Valle del Bove. Explosive activity changed to continuous lava fountaining and an eruption plume developed at about 0830. Large pyroclasts fell on the steep flanks of the cone, causing avalanches.

At about 0850 small pyroclastic flows generated by the partial collapse of the eruption column mainly descended the NE flank, and somewhat down the S flank. A lava flow was emitted from a new eruptive vent on the upper SW flank of the New SEC cone and descended into the saddle between the old and new SEC cones. The lava interacted with snow, causing powerful explosions and small pyroclastic flows. These phreatic explosions generated jets of vapor and launched rock fragments to distances of several tens of meters. A lahar developed which traveled toward the "Belvedere" monitoring station, on the W rim of the Valle del Bove, and passed a few tens of meters to the N of the monitoring instruments.

A lava flow also issued from an eruptive fissure on the upper N flank of the cone and descended a few hundred meters to the NE, surrounding the N base of the cone. After descending the steep W slope of the Valle del Bove, the flow split into several branches on the more gently sloping terrain. These branches exceeded in length those of 9 February, reaching a total distance of about 3.5 km from the crater. Shortly after 1000, the activity started to diminish; lava fountaining ceased at 1032, two hours after the onset of the paroxysmal phase. The lava flow emitted from the fissure on the SW flank of the cone continued advancing for a few hours after the cessation of the activity.

The eruption column rose several kilometers above the summit of Etna. Ash and lapilli were carried NE by the wind, affecting the areas around Piedimonte, Etneo, and Taormina. Fine ash fell as far as the Messina area and southern Calabria. Again, the pyroclastic cone of the New SEC had grown in height, mainly on its N rim.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


8 February-14 February 2012

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on 8 February the New SE Crater (New SEC) of Etna entered another paroxysmal eruption episode after about 12 days of Strombolian activity. During the afternoon of 8 February, the Strombolian activity increased in both frequency and intensity of explosions from the vent on the W portion of the crater floor, and occasionally from a vent to the E. After about 1900, lava began to spill into the deep breach on the SE crater rim and then descended to the base of the cone. The lava flow expanded around 2100 and the Strombolian activity slowly increased, turning into a discontinuous lava fountain around 2330.

On 9 February the pulsating lava fountain rose 100-500 m above the crater before a continuous jet rising 300-400 m above the crater. A cloud with a small amount of tephra rose 6 km above the summit and then drifted W, producing some pyroclastic fallout that was on the upper portion of the volcano. Around 0200 and 0400, lava fountains from the two vents within the crater rose as high as 500 m above the crater. The fountain from the E vent caused abundant fallout on the crater rim and E flank. A third vent, located in the breach cutting the SE crater rim, produced sporadic violent explosions that ejected bombs many meters in diameter all over the E portion of the cone.

The lava flow reached the W rim around 0130, descended the flank, and branched into three different flows that reached a distance of 3 km from the New SEC. Lava fountaining started to diminish around 0530, and then around 0545 sporadic jets rose as high as 300 m above the crater. At the same time, the vent in the SE crater breach produced strong explosions that again ejected bombs many meters in diameter. These explosions generated loud bangs that were heard all over Etna and small ash emissions that were reported on the W portion of Bocca Nuova. Around 0900 activity started to diminish and ceased abruptly at 1000.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


1 February-7 February 2012

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported on 6 February that mild Strombolian activity and small ash emissions continued from Etna's New Southeast Crater (New SEC).

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


25 January-31 January 2012

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that an explosion at the New Southeast Crater (New SEC) of Etna generated an ash plume at that rose 400 m above the crater at 1906 on 27 January. An explosive ash emission at 1124 from the vent on the W portion of the crater floor was followed by others that were less intense. At 2140 an explosion ejected incandescent material in a narrow vertical jet that rose a few tens of meters above the crater. A small Strombolian explosion occurred at 2231. On 28 January sporadic ash emissions continued from New SEC.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


4 January-10 January 2012

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on the night of 4 January the New SE Crater (New SEC) of Etna entered another paroxysmal eruption episode after about 50 days of quiescence. Several hours of Strombolian activity were observed on the SE and NE slopes starting at 2230 on 4 January. This activity continued into the early morning of 5 January when (around 0200) a small lava flow spread out into several branches at the SE base of the cone. Strombolian activity increased around 0400, generating lava fountains, from several vents within the crater that rose 100-150 m above the crater.

Significant ashfall and pyroclastic material fell onto the flanks at 0450 on 5 January. Around 0515 lava fountains generated a continuous eruption of ash-and-gas plumes that rose to an altitude of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Small pyroclastic flows went a few hundred meters and lahars traveled down the NE, E, and S flanks of the cone. Around 0600 active vents along the N edge of the New SEC produced intermittent lava fountains. The most intense phase of the eruption occurred around 0620 when a strong explosion opened a vent on the top side of the SE cone, removed a portion of the SE crater rim, and generated ash plumes. The N slope of New SEC showed gravitational movement due to the amount of deposited pyroclastic material. Around 0630 activity started to diminish and ceased abruptly at 0730, but was followed by passive ash emissions that lasted until 0830.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


9 November-15 November 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the eighteenth paroxysmal eruptive episode of 2011 took place at the New SE Crater (New SEC) of Etna during the morning of 15 November. Thermal monitoring cameras at the observatory in Catania and at Montagnola, about 3.5 km S of the summit craters, recorded a small thermal anomaly at the lower end of the eruptive fissure on the SE flank of the cone at about 0700. The anomaly slowly grew in size and temperature, caused by the emission and expansion of a small lava flow. Mild Strombolian activity commenced at 0900 from within the New SEC, and spattering began from several vents along the fissure on the SE flank of the cone. This activity continued for nearly three hours, while increasing very slowly, and the lava flow spread out into several branches at the SE base of the cone, advancing only a few hundred meters. At about 1155, the activity markedly and rapidly increased both within the crater and along the fissure, and just after 1200 lava fountains and ash emissions rose from the crater. Lava fountains then rose from vents along the SE flank fissure. Bombs and scoria fell into the cone.

At 1230 ash emissions significantly increased, especially from a vent located in the SE portion of the New SEC, and a plume of ash and gas rose several kilometers above the summit and drifted SE. The most intense phase of the eruption occurred between 1245 and 1315 when jets heavily laden with incandescent bombs rose as high as 800 m above the crater. Pyroclastic material fell onto the New SEC cone, areas well beyond the base, and the nearby old SEC cone. During this phase explosions occurred from a vent on the N flank of the New SEC cone, likely the same vent that emitted small lava flows on 28 September and 8 October. At about 1325 the activity started to diminish and ceased abruptly at 1329, but was followed by passive ash emissions that lasted until just after 1400. Weak and discontinuous spattering accompanied by slow lava effusion continued for a few hours from a single vent in the central portion of the eruptive fissure on the SE flank of the New SEC cone.

Lava flows from the eruption traveled less than 4 km toward the floor of the Valle del Bove, immediately to the N of the Serra Giannicola ridge, stagnating to the SW of Monte Centenari. The New SEC grew in height by 10 m on the S side, bringing the total height of the cone to about 180-200 m above its base. Ash and lapilli deposits affected the SE flank, including the towns of Zafferana Etnea (10 km SE) and Acireale (20 km SE).

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


19 October-25 October 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the seventeenth paroxysmal eruptive episode of 2011 took place at the New SE Crater (New SEC) of Etna during the evening of 23 October. Weak explosive activity was recorded at 1913, and at about 1935 small anomalies appeared in images recorded by thermal cameras. Explosive activity rapidly intensified at 1940 and by 2007 that crater was completely filled with lava. The lava overflowed through a breach in the E crater rim and traveled towards the Valle del Bove.

At 2026, Strombolian activity transitioned to continuous lava fountains that rose a few tens of meters above the crater rim. At 2036, a vent opened on the SE flank of the cone, producing a second lava fountain, leading to a significant increase in the lava effusion rate. The height of the lava fountains significantly increased after 2100, reaching 300 m above the crater. At about 2130, a third vent became active within the New SEC, possibly near the N rim. Abundant amounts of tephra fell on the E flank of the cone, forming a dense curtain, while large incandescent blocks rolled to the base of the cone on more gently sloping terrain. At approximately 2229 two lightning flashes near the crater were observed. After 2230 both effusive and explosive activity showed a marked reduction, changing again into Strombolian activity around 2300, and ceasing altogether at 2315.

The lava flow continued to advance towards the Valle del Bove until about 0040 on 24 October and stagnated just upslope of Monte Centenari (at 1,900 m a.s.l.). The area most heavily affected by the tephra (ash and small scoriaceous lapilli) fall was the E flank of Etna, including the N portion of the towns of Zafferana (about 10 km to the E), Milo (about 11 km ESE), and Fornazzo (10 km E), downslope across Santa Venerina (SE flank) and Dagala del Re (14 km ESE) to Giarre (~17 km E) and Riposto (18 km E), as well as nearby villages.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


5 October-11 October 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the sixteenth paroxysmal eruptive episode of 2011 took place at the New SE Crater (New SEC) of Etna during the afternoon of 8 October. A rapid increase in volcanic tremor amplitude was detected that morning, and at about 1300 weak and discontinuous Strombolian explosions were recorded by surveillance cameras. Two hours later, lava flowed from a deep notch in the SE rim of the crater.

At around 1545 vigorous Strombolian activity was observed from numerous vents along a short fissure on the SE flank of the cone, which had first been active during the 29 August paroxysm (the twelfth). Weather conditions deteriorated at about 1615, preventing direct observations of the Strombolian activity changing into sustained lava fountaining and ash emissions. However, this change was audible around 1630, and a dense ash-and-vapor plume rapidly rose above the weather clouds and drifted E. At the same time lava flows descended on the W slope of the Valle del Bove. Eruptive vents opened on the NE flank of the cone, approximately along the fracture that first opened during 8 September, and two small lava flows were emitted. The more voluminous lava flow traveled a few hundred meters downslope. The paroxysmal phase lasted a little longer than 20 minutes and ended around 1650. Ash emissions continued until 1945, when the volcanic tremor amplitude returned to levels similar to those preceding the paroxysmal episode, and the lava flow fronts appeared to stagnate. The ash cloud drifted ENE and produced ash- and lapilli-fall in a narrow sector from the Ripe della Naca area and the village of Puntalazzo (13 km E) to the town of Mascali (18 km E).

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


28 September-4 October 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the fifteenth paroxysmal eruptive episode of 2011 took place at the New SE Crater of Etna during the evening of 28 September. That morning, noises originated from the New SE Crater. At 1600 volcanic tremor amplitude started to increase, and rhythmic ash emissions that rose from a vent located within the crater were occasionally accompanied by small Strombolian explosions. Starting at 1930 Strombolian activity progressively increased both in the intensity and frequency of explosions, and eventually became continuous. Bombs and scoria were ejected well beyond the crater rim. A small amount of lava flowed through the notch in the SE flank of the volcano at 2115 and was soon followed by explosions from a vent within the same area. The Strombolian activity waned for a few minutes then rapidly increased, forming a sustained lava fountain that rose as high as 800 m. At 2133 and 2134 two powerful explosions originating from a vent on the E rim of the crater created shock waves visible in the clouds above the crater and ejected large bombs hundreds of meters away. Lava fountains 100-150 m high commenced from a vent on the N base of the New SE Crater cone at 2136. The vent emitted a small lava flow soon after. At 2155 activity from all vents decreased, and between 2205 and 2210 all explosive activity ceased. Lava continued to flow until 2330.

The lava flow emitted from the SE flank of the cone reached the lower portion of the W slope of the Valle del Bove, somewhat SW of Monte Centenari. Ash plumes drifted SW and light ashfall occurred on the S flank of Etna, including in the towns of Nicolosi (14 km S) and Catania (27 km S).

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


14 September-20 September 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the fourteenth eruption from Etna's New SE Crater in 2011 occurred during poor weather conditions on 19 September. Lava fountains rose from multiple vents within the crater and lava flows descended the W slope of the Valle del Bove. An ash plume drifted NE; ash and lapilli fell in an area to the N of Giarre (16 km E). The main phase of the event lasted from about 1020 until just after 1300. During the evening the lava flows were active and weak spattering continued from a vent at the SE base of the SE Crater cone.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


7 September-13 September 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the thirteenth paroxysmal eruptive episode of 2011 took place at the New SE Crater of Etna on the morning of 8 September. Prior to the episode, a few emissions of ash from the New SE Crater occurred on 6 September. Sporadic, very weak Strombolian explosions from the crater started during the late evening on 7 September, and then continued in a subdued manner through the night.

On 8 September a series of ash emissions were followed by a rapid increase both in the intensity and frequency of Strombolian explosions. Loud detonations were audible across a vast sector of Etna's densely populated SE to E flanks. Simultaneously the volcanic tremor amplitude sharply increased and shifted from below the NE Crater toward the SE Crater. The Strombolian activity turned into a pulsating lava fountain, accompanied by increasing amounts of volcanic ash. Lava fountaining and ash emissions became more vigorous. Lava flowed through a deep breach in the E crater rim and along the fracture that had opened on the SE side of the cone during 29 August. The lava overflow was accompanied by repeated collapse and rockfalls from unstable portions of the cone in that area. Later brief periods of repeated emissions of brown ash mixed with white water vapor occurred from two or three vents on the N flank of the New SE Crater cone, in an area of the lava overflows from the N rim of the crater that had started shortly after the onset of the activity. The paroxysmal activity ceased in the evening and was followed by a series of progressively more passive ash emissions. Lava flows descended on the W slope of the Valle del Bove; expansion of the most advanced lava fronts continued for some time after feeding of the lava had ceased, mostly due to gravitational flow. Small active lava flows were observed for many hours after the cessation of the paroxysmal activity, remaining confined to the immediate vicinity of the crater.

The pyroclastic cone that grew around the New SE Crater during the recent series of eruptive episodes had undergone significant morphological changes. The S and N crater rims had further increased in height, whereas degradation and mass wasting on the SE flank had become more conspicuous. A large chunk of rock on the lower SE flank was rotated and uplifted, forming a steep-sided "spine" about 20-30 m tall, with locally vertical and sub-vertical flanks.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


24 August-30 August 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that nine days after the previous episode, the New SE Crater produced its twelfth paroxysmal eruptive episode of 2011 during the early morning of 29 August. The event was preceded by an explosion at 2252 on 27 August, and a series of ash emissions from the New SE Crater almost 15 hours later. Weak Strombolian activity visible during the evening on 28 August intensified during the night.

At 0115 on 29 August lava overflowed the rim through a breach in the E crater rim and traveled towards the Valle del Bove. Strombolian activity progressively intensified and two vents within the crater emitted pulsating lava fountains up to 100 m high. The lava fountains again increased in height and a dense plume rose a few kilometers above the summit before drifting toward the SSE. At the same time, a small lava flow issued from the area affected by the collapse of a portion of the cone's ESE flank during the 20 August paroxysm. At 0220 the SE flank of the cone fractured and exposed a line of new eruptive vents down to the base of the cone that produced lava fountains. A broad lava flow fed by the vents descended into the Valle del Bove, somewhat to the S of the lava flow emitted earlier during the episode. The lava fountaining from the vents within the crater turned into ash emission just after 0220, whereas the lowest vent on the new eruptive fracture continued to produce incandescent jets until 0250. Ash emission continued at a diminishing rate until about 0315.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


17 August-23 August 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that eight days after the preceding episode, Etna's New SE Crater was the site of another paroxysmal eruptive episode on the morning of 20 August, the eleventh event of this type since the beginning of 2011. The event began on 18 August with increased gas emissions from New SE Crater. On 19 August a powerful explosion ejected incandescent bombs and produced a small ash plume. The event was followed by a few more minor explosions, all accompanied by an increase in volcanic tremor amplitude and focal shift from the NE Crater toward the New SE Crater. Throughout the day small dilute ash was emitted. During the evening weak Strombolian activity commenced, with small explosions occurring about every 30 minutes.

On 20 August weak but continuous incandescence due to lava emissions appeared in the crater. Strombolian activity intensified, and lava overflowed the rim through a breach in the E crater rim traveling towards the Valle del Bove. Almost five hours later lava fountaining generated heavy fallout of large pyroclastics onto the flanks of the cone. Dense plumes of gas and tephra rose 5-6 km from the crater and drifted SW, causing ash- and lapilli-fall in areas such as Paternò (22 km SSW), Ragalna (13 km SSW), and Biancavilla (16 km SW). Closer to the crater, in the Torre del Filosofo area to the S, clasts up to several tens of centimeters in diameter landed on the ground.

Light brown dust clouds appeared in an area on the lower E flank of the cone, where a small depression had formed a few hours after the 12 August event. Shortly thereafter, the continuous, intense ejection of pyroclastics onto the flanks of the cone generated avalanches resembling pyroclastic flows, which descended a few hundred meters beyond the base of the cone, mainly towards the S. In the meantime, the lower portion of the E flank of the cone began to slide and collapse under the push of lava from within the channel. A new lava flow issued from the collapsed area, taking a more southerly path than the lava emitted until then, and divided into numerous branches. Lava fountaining slowed later in the evening and eventually ceased, followed by ash emissions from the crater for a few minutes. A series of ash explosions lasted for five minutes in the early morning on 21 August. The morphological changes affecting the pyroclastic cone surrounding the New SE Crater were significant. Besides the collapse on the lower E flank of the cone, the S and NE rims of the cone had grown in height.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


10 August-16 August 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on 11 August sporadic ash emissions from Etna's New SE Crater produced small grayish-brown ash plumes. Thermal surveillance cameras revealed hot material in late-afternoon emissions. In the evening and throughout the night small Strombolian explosions were observed at intervals of a few tens of minutes. Early on 12 August, the day of the tenth paroxysmal eruptive episode of 2011, the Strombolian activity intensified and was accompanied by an increase in volcanic tremor amplitude. Strombolian explosions then produced dark ash clouds, and lava overflowed the E rim of the crater through a deep breach formed during previous eruptions. During the following 30 minutes or so Strombolian activity rapidly intensified, and formed a pulsating lava fountain about 100 m tall. Fifteen minutes later a dense column of ash rose above the lava fountain while large bombs and blocks fell onto the cone surrounding the New SE Crater.

During the most intense period three vents in the crater were active, two in the central portion and one close to the E-rim breach. Soon after, the two vents in the center of the crater emitted only ash, while the E vent continued to eject jets of incandescent lava. The activity completely ceased more than a half an hour later. The lava produced during the eruption descended the W slope of the Valle del Bove in numerous lobes; the most advanced lava fronts reached the base of the steep slope above Monte Centenari. Ash- and lapilli-fall affected a relatively narrow area between Zafferana (10 km SE), and the coastal area between Giarre and Acireale, on the SE flank.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


3 August-9 August 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the ninth paroxysmal eruptive episode from Etna in 2011 took place at the New SE Crater (located on the E flank of the old SE Crater cone and previously called the "pit crater") during the night of 5-6 August. Weak Strombolian explosions occurred in the crater during the afternoon on 5 August and gradually increased over the next few hours. At 2215 lava flowed over the E rim of the crater and towards the W slope of the Valle del Bove. Strombolian activity rapidly increased and formed a lava fountain that rose 100 m above the crater rim. Activity again intensified and jets of lava rose several hundred meters high. An eruption plume laden with ash and lapilli rose a few kilometers above the crater and drifted SE. At the climax of the eruption lava fountains exceeded 500 m in height. Just after midnight the incandescent jets diminished in height, continued to pulsate for about an hour, then further diminished. By 0215 on 6 August the eruption was substantially over. Ash-and-lapilli fall were observed in the SE sector of the volcano, between Zafferana (10 km SE) and Viagrande (16 km SSE) and between Acitrezza (23 km SE) and Pozzillo (19 km SE) along the Ionian coast.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


27 July-2 August 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that in the evening of 28 July Strombolian explosions from the active vent on the E flank of Etna's SE Crater cone were weak and sporadic, then ceased during the night. Throughout 29 July the crater was quiet. In the early morning of 30 July intermittent incandescence from the crater gradually intensified and became more frequent, then was followed by intense Strombolian activity accompanied by loud detonations. Lava bombs ejected several tens of meters fell back into the crater or around the rim. A diffuse ash plume drifted E. A small lava flow on the E flank descended about 100 m then rapidly chilled. The activity was accompanied by a distinct increase in the mean amplitude of volcanic tremor that, along with the activity, abruptly decreased in the early afternoon.

Later that day the mean amplitude of volcanic tremor increased again along with Strombolian activity. A diffuse gas-and-ash plume again drifted E. Strombolian activity intensified and incandescent jets became continuous. At the same time lava flowed E and the effusion rate rapidly increased; lava flowed 3 km down the W slope of the Valle del Bove. The ash plume became more dense and ashfall was reported in the Ionian area (18 km E). During the most intense period, fragments of fluid lava were ejected 450-500 m above the crater and fell onto the flanks of the pyroclastic cone to distances of 200-300 m. Lava fountains jetted from at least two vents located within the crater and on the upper E flank, roughly aligned WNW and ESE. The activity ceased just after midnight. The event on 30 July was the eighth paroxysmal event in 2011.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


20 July-26 July 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the seventh eruption of Etna in 2011 occurred from the active crater on the E flank of the SE Crater cone. On 24 July vigorous Strombolian activity started within the crater, gradually increased through the night, and culminated on 25 July. Strombolian activity gradually turned into a pulsating lava fountain, accompanied by increasingly voluminous ash emissions. The fountain fluctuated between 250 and 300 m above the crater with a few jets rising 350 m. Lava flowed through a breach on the E crater rim and divided into multiple parallel flows that reached the base of the steep W slope of the Valle del Bove near Monte Centenari. Plumes drifted E causing ashfall between the villages of Fornazzo and Milo on the flank (10 km E), and the Ionian coast near Riposto (18 km E). The final phase of the eruption was characterized by a series of violent explosions that produced loud detonations heard in the E and SE sectors of the volcano.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


13 July-19 July 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on the evening of 11 July Strombolian activity began from Etna's Bocca Nuova crater, representing the first magmatic eruption since 2002. Incandescence was first recorded with a monitoring camera on the SE flank and was later visible from population centers in the SE sector of Etna. During the night of 12-13 July incandescence was more continuous and intense than during the previous night. At varying intervals, incandescent bombs that were ejected above the crater rim fell back into the crater. On 13 July volcanologists visited Bocca Nuova and observed a single large vent on the crater floor that was the source of the Strombolian activity. The strongest explosions ejected incandescent bombs several tens of meters above the crater rim. Most bombs fell back into the crater but some went over the rocky partition that divided Bocca Nuova from Voragine, and fell into the S portion of the latter.

In the evening of 15 July, volcanologists again visited Bocca Nuova and noted that the Strombolian activity had decreased slightly but within less than two hours had increased to levels greater than those observed on 13 July. Immediately to the W of the explosive vent, a lava flow was issuing from underneath a sheet of pyroclastic material deposited by the nearby Strombolian activity. The flow cascaded into a deeper depression in the W central portion of the crater floor.

On 16 July, a series of ash emissions from the pit crater located on the E flank of the SE Crater cone marked the resumption of explosive activity within the crater, and produced loud booming sounds that were widely heard in populated areas on Etna's flanks. On the evening on 18 July Strombolian activity increased and culminated into a new paroxysmal eruptive episode on 19 July. Lava flows traveled down the steep W slope of the Valle del Bove, following the same path as the lavas emitted during the preceding eruptive episodes, and stagnated at the base near Monte Centenari. Lava fountains rose 200-250 m and produced heavy fallout of fluid spatter, forming several lava flows. The largest lava flow descended the S flank of the cone reaching the base. A dense plume of gas and ash drifted E.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


6 July-12 July 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that explosions from the pit crater located on the E flank of Etna's SE Crater cone were heard on the morning of 4 July. Incandescence was observed later that evening. Small Strombolian eruptions were recorded by a camera during 5-6 July.

On 7 July Strombolian activity gradually increased along with volcanic tremor amplitude. Small pyroclastic cones began to grow on the crater floor. During the next morning, volcanic tremor amplitude clearly increased. Shortly thereafter it abruptly decreased and the Strombolian activity completely ceased. During the morning of 9 July, Strombolian activity resumed and volcanic tremor amplitude rose rapidly. Around noon lava overflowed the E rim of the crater and followed the path of lava flows from the previous eruption, into the upper W part of the Valle del Bove. Later that day Strombolian explosions turned into a continuous lava fountain. A dense eruptive plume rose several kilometers high and drifted S and SE, causing ash and lapilli fall in populated areas including Trecastagni, Viagrande, and Acireale towards the SE, and between Nicolosi and Catania towards the S, forcing the closure of the Fontanarossa international airport in Catania. A few hours later volcanic tremor amplitude dropped to very low levels and all eruptive activity ceased.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


15 June-21 June 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on 13 June mountain guides heard loud hissing sounds coming from the interior of Etna's Bocca Nuova crater. After nearly six months of quiescence, ash emissions rose from Bocca Nuova the next morning. The emissions were composed of small ash clouds that seemingly originated from the central part of the crater and rose about 200-250 m above the crater rim, then drifted E. Thermal monitoring cameras showed no signs of incandescence in the emissions, which were observed for a few hours before meteorological clouds moved in and prevented further observations. During limited periods of good visibility from 15 to 17 June, sporadic small reddish-to-grayish-brown ash plumes were observed to occur every 5-15 minutes. Usual rhythmic emissions of gas and vapor from the Northeast Crater continued.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


11 May-17 May 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on 8 May mild and discontinuous Strombolian activity resumed at the pit crater located on the E flank of Etna's SE Crater cone. On 11 May volcanic tremor amplitude progressively increased, and at about 2030 lava started to overflow the E crater rim. The activity intensified during the following hours and, shortly before 0400 on 12 May, culminated with lava fountaining which generated an ash cloud that drifted SSE. The lava fountaining lasted around 2 hours, showing a gradual diminution around 0545; an abrupt drop in the volcanic tremor amplitude at 0610 marked the end of the eruptive activity.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


4 May-10 May 2011

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on 8 May mild and discontinuous Strombolian activity resumed at the pit crater located on the E flank of Etna's SE Crater cone. Loud detonations were audible many kilometers away including in Monti Sartorius (NE flank) and in Zafferana Etnea (SW flank). After sunset, Strombolian explosions observed at intervals of 3-10 minutes ejected incandescent bombs up to a few tens of meters above the crater rim. During the night, some explosions ejected bombs well beyond the crater rim, down to the base of the cone that has grown around the crater during the recent events. Strombolian explosions continued without significant variations the next day.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


6 April-12 April 2011

INGV-CT reported that from 29 March through the first few days of April, a series of gas-and-ash emissions, rarely with minor incandescent material, rose from the pit crater on the E flank of Etna's SE Crater cone. On 8 April small Strombolian explosions occurred from two vents located in the W portion of the crater floor; ejecta were confined to the crater depression. On 9 April seismicity from the Strombolian activity increased throughout the day. In the afternoon, explosive activity commenced from two vents before lava flows covered the crater floor. Later that evening incandescent blocks appeared within a breach in the E rim of the crater, followed by a small overflow of lava. The lava flow advanced from the base of the SE Crater cone toward the W headwall of the Valle del Bove, as far as 1 km. At the same time small but frequent Strombolian explosions continued within the crater.

During the night of 9-10 April, the Strombolian activity within the pit crater gradually increased, as well as volcanic tremor amplitude. The lava flow continued to advance. On 10 April, activity and tremor amplitude significantly increased and culminated with vigorous lava fountaining. An ash-and-gas plume drifted SE, causing ashfall in areas downwind. The lava-flow emission rate also increased dramatically. A second lava flow covered the first and traveled down into the Valle del Bove, essentially following the same path as the lava flows of 12-13 January and 18 February. The lava flow encountered thick snow cover, leading to violent explosive interactions that generated pyroclastic flows, and resulted in spectacular vapor-and-ash plumes. The eruption declined rapidly after about 1500; no activity was observed later than the afternoon.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


30 March-5 April 2011

Based on a NOTAM, the Toulouse VAAC reported that on 3 April ash from Etna rose to an altitude between 2.4-3.4 km (8,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified in satellite imagery.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 February-22 February 2011

INGV-CT reported that on 16 February an explosive sequence, presumably from Etna's NE Crater, was detected on 16 February during the late evening. Cloud cover made direct observations difficult. On 18 February the thermal monitoring camera at Montagnola (EMOT) recorded anomalies from the pit crater located on the lower E flank of SE Crater cone. At the same time, the visible-light camera at Montagnola (EMOV) showed intermittent incandescence indicating Strombolian activity, and the seismic network recorded a rapid increase in the volcanic tremor amplitude. This eruptive episode lasted about 11 hours and produced pulsating lava fountains. Lava flows traveled E, following the same path as that of the 12-13 January event, in the direction of the Valle del Bove. Light ashfall occurred on the SW flank of the volcano.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


12 January-18 January 2011

On the evening of 12 January Strombolian activity from a pit crater located on the lower E flank of Etna's Southeast Crater cone intensified and volcanic tremor amplitude increased. Just after 2100 lava breached the crater's E rim and formed a lava flow that traveled towards the W wall of the Valle del Bove. During the night of 12-13 January, the pit crater produced lava fountains, voluminous lava flows that descended to about 1,630 m elevation (about 4.2 km from the vent), and an ash plume that rose several kilometers. The ash plume drifted S and caused ashfall on Etna's S flank and in population centers such as Nicolosi. Scoria several centimeters in diameter fell in Rifugio Sapienza, at 1,910 m elevation. The lava fountains were sustained initially and rose 300-500 m high, then pulsated and became less vigorous, and eventually formed one single jet that rose less than 100 m. Fountaining ceased at 0055 on 13 January. Emissions of ash during 13 January were generated in part by collapses within the crater and also by sporadic explosions within the conduit. On 14 January small landslides within the pit crater produced grayish-brown plumes.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


5 January-11 January 2011

After a few hours of quiescence on the evening of 3 January, very weak emissions of incandescent material (probably mostly hot gas with little or no solid material) resumed from the pit crater located on the lower E flank of Etna's Southeast Crater cone. Later that evening intense incandescence from the pit crater was reported by observers in the village of S. Alfio on the E flank of Etna. The emissions continued on 4 January at a rate of 4-6 events per hour, producing small plumes that appeared as thermal anomalies in thermal video footage. Activity ceased in the afternoon. Very weak emissions of incandescent material (probably again mostly hot gas) were observed on 5 January at the same rate as the previous day. A camera recorded white vapor plumes occasionally accompanied by some grayish-brown ash. Weak, intermittent incandescence from the pit crater was observed at night during 5-6 January. Emissions on 6 January occurred at a frequency of 3-4 events per hour, producing small plumes seen in thermal camera footage. That same day, intense degassing occurred from the W vent of Bocca Nuova (BN-1), and from the Northeast Crater, where pulsating emissions produced mushroom-shaped vapor plumes.

Starting in the late evening of 11 January, the seismic network recorded a slight increase in volcanic tremor amplitude. The amplitude peaked early on 12 January, and the source of the tremor shifted from a location N of the Northeast Crater towards the Southeast Crater. Weak Strombolian activity from the pit crater accompanied these changes on 11 January, and gradually became more intense on 12 January.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


29 December-4 January 2011

INGV-CT reported that during the first few days of December gas emissions from a large pit crater on the lower E flank of Etna's Southeast Crater cone nearly ceased. On 22 December at 0446 a strong explosion occurred at the W vent of the Bocca Nuova (BN-1). This event generated an ash plume a few meters high, which then drifted NE, causing light ashfall in areas as far as the town of Linguaglossa (17 km NE). On 23 December bluish gas rose from a vent at the base of the W wall of the pit, at the base of the Southeast Crater cone. Bright incandescence was intermittently visible on video footage. Inclement weather prevented clear observations that day and during the next few days. On 29 December extremely small amounts of incandescent material emitted from the pit crater were observed using visible and thermal cameras. The brief emissions (2-6 second intervals) were jets of mainly hot gas that barely rose above the rim of the pit crater. Inclement weather again prevented observations of the crater during 30-31 December.

During the late afternoon on 2 January, strong incandescence at the pit crater evolved into vigorous Strombolian activity. Frequent Strombolian explosions (1-3 per minute) ejected coarse-grained incandescent material a few tens of meters above the rim of the pit. On a few occasions, incandescent bombs fell outside the pit's rim, mainly to the S and E. The activity continued into the early morning then decreased markedly. Negligible quantities of volcanic ash were produced.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


22 December-28 December 2010

INGV-CT reported that a strong explosion from the W vent of Etna's Bocca Nuova crater at 0446 on 22 December produced an ash plume that rose a few hundred meters above the summit and drifted NE. The explosion of hot, though not incandescent, material and subsequent ash emission was observed and recorded by thermal cameras at Montagnola and Nicolosi (14 km S). Light ashfall was reported as far away as Linguaglossa (18 km NE). Small emissions of reddish-brown ash continued to occur before noon.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


10 November-16 November 2010

Following several days of ash emissions from Etna's Northeast Crater, INGV-CT reported that on 14 November there was a significant increase in both the frequency and volume of ash emissions. The emissions were intermittent, alternating with periods of gas-and-steam. Ash plumes rose a few hundred meters high and drifted first SW on 14 November, then NE during 14-15 November, and finally E on 15 November.

INGV-CT staff visited the summit craters on 15 November and saw a few millimeters of brown ash on the ground mainly to the S of Northeast Crater. Ash deposits were 1 cm thick on the rim of the crater. Ash emissions were accompanied by nearly continuous deep rumblings. The vent on the crater floor was at least 75 m in diameter compared to about 25 m in October.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


1 September-7 September 2010

INGV-CT reported that on 25 August a powerful explosion from Etna's Bocca Nuova crater initiated a series of ash emissions, which continued at decreasing strength for about 20 minutes. A thermal camera located at La Montagnola, 3 km S of the summit craters, showed ejected hot material and a cauliflower-shaped, dark gray ash plume that rose about 1 km and drifted E. Ashfall was reported in areas SE from Etna to Catania (27 km S). An inspection the next morning revealed that the W wall of the BN-1 crater of Bocca Nuova had collapsed. During 25-29 August a total of seven explosions were recorded.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


16 June-22 June 2010

INGV-CT reported a series of landslides on 19 June from the NW rim of the pit crater located on the lower E side of Etna's Southeast Crater. The collapses generated small ash clouds that drifted NE, and changed the pit crater's morphology. Data from a thermal camera showed thermal anomalies over 180 degrees Celsius indicating that the landslide material was hot. Fumarolic activity was seen in the landslide area during an inspection the day before.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


7 April-13 April 2010

INGV-CT reported that on 8 April a dozen low-frequency events located near the summit of Etna were detected by the seismic network. Concurrently, a dark-colored ash plume rose 1 km from a pit crater located at the E base of the Southeast Crater and drifted NE. Dark emissions from the central crater were also seen a short time later. Ashfall was reported from a few local areas. On 9 April intense gas emissions were noted at the pit crater.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


27 May-2 June 2009

INGV-CT reported that during 25-31 May the NW-SE-trending fissure E of the Etna summit craters continued (since 13 May 2008) to produce active lava flows to the N of the SE end of the fissure, along the W wall of the Valle del Bove. At least three lava flows were active. Elsewhere on the volcano, activity was restricted to degassing from the Northeast Crater, from the NW and SE Bocca Nuova vents, from the E flank of the Southeast Crater, and along summit fumarolic fields. The activity was observed directly and by utilizing surveillance cameras in Milo (about 11 km ESE).

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


18 March-24 March 2009

INGV-CT reported that after a week of Strombolian activity and ash emission from the top of Etna's 2008 eruptive fissure, activity from the summit craters during 16-22 March consisted of degassing from the Northeast Crater, the NW Bocca Nuova vent, from the E flank of the Southeast Crater, and along summit fumarolic fields. The activity was observed directly and by utilizing surveillance cameras situated in Milo (about 11 km ESE). The NW-SE-trending fissure E of the summit craters continued (since 13 May 2008) to produce active lava flows to the N of the SE end of the fissure, along the W wall of the Valle del Bove.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


7 January-13 January 2009

INGV-CT reported that during 5-11 January activity from Etna's summit craters was observed utilizing surveillance cameras situated in Milo (about 11 km ESE); inclement weather prevented direct inspection of the summit area. Degassing was seen from the NW Bocca Nuova vent, from the walls and floor of Southeast Crater, and along summit fumarolic fields. The NW-SE-trending fissure E of the summit craters continued (since 13 May 2008) to produce active lava flows to the N of the SE end of the fissure, along the W wall of the Valle del Bove.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


19 November-25 November 2008

INGV-CT reported that an inspection of Etna's summit craters on 19 November revealed degassing from the Northeast Crater and, to a lesser degree, from the Bocca Nuova BN-1 crater. A 100-m-long lava flow was active in mid-November; the lava flow field on the upper Valle del Bove has been active since 13 May.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


16 July-22 July 2008

INGV-CT reported that an inspection of Etna's summit craters on 15 July revealed degassing from the Northeast Crater and to a lesser degree from the BN-1 crater of the Bocca Nuova. Explosive activity was restricted to Vent 2 of the active NW-SE-trending fissure E of the summit craters and characterized by weak Strombolian activity and diffuse ash emissions. During 15 and 17 July lava flows were active in the Valle del Bove. On 17 July, no explosive activity was seen along the fissure.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


14 May-20 May 2008

INGV-CT reported continuous ash emission and periodic Strombolian activity from multiple vents, possibly along an E-trending fissure E of Etna's summit craters, during 10-19 May. Observations were limited due to cloud cover. Ash plumes rose to approximate attitudes of 3.5-7.3 km (11,500-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and sulfur dioxide emissions were elevated. Lava flows that issued from the fissure and another fissure to the N traveled about 6 km E into the Valle del Bove during 13-15 May. Ash-and-gas explosions were occasionally accompanied by roaring noises on 14 May. Explosions and roaring noises were audible on 20 May. [Correction: Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l.]

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


7 May-13 May 2008

Based on observations using the summit web camera, INGV-CT reported that a week of Strombolian activity from a depression on the E flank of the South East Crater at the summit of Etna ceased on 28 April. On 1 May, a seismic swarm was detected along the NE rift and degassing from the South East Crater and the North East Crater was noted. On 10 May, an eruption produced ash plumes that drifted N; observations were hindered due to cloud cover, but the ash cloud was detected on satellite imagery. Lava flows advanced about 6.4 km E and covered the W wall of the Valle del Bove. Ashfall was reported in multiple areas during 10-11 May.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


29 August-4 September 2007

Based on information from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and observations using satellite imagery, the Toulouse VAAC reported that a diffuse eruption plume from Etna rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. during 4-5 September and drifted E.

According to news reports, a Strombolian eruption on 4 September produced lava flows that descended down the flanks. Ashfall was reported in several villages and the airport in Catania closed through the night.

Sources: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Reuters


22 August-28 August 2007

On 15 August, the South East Crater at the summit of Etna produced ash emissions from a depression on the E flank. A resultant ash plume rose a few tens of meters and quickly dispersed. Ashfall formed a red deposit on the flanks of the South East Crater cone. Based on observations using the summit web camera, incandescent blocks associated with energetic emissions of ash were propelled out of the depression on 21 August. A field assessment on 22 August revealed that the ash emissions were associated with collapses within the depression. During 23-24 August, the ash emissions increased in frequency and erupted incandescent blocks were again observed.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


4 July-10 July 2007

The Toulouse VAAC reported that minor activity from Etna was detected on satellite imagery on 7 July.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 May-8 May 2007

A summit eruption that occurred at Etna on 29 April began with an increase in volcanic tremor and was followed by lava fountaining and a vertical ash plume. Lava flows traveled E within the Valle del Bove. The INGV-CT monitoring web cameras showed that the eruption lasted about 8-9 hours.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


11 April-17 April 2007

A summit eruption that occurred at Etna on 11 April began with an increase in volcanic tremor and was followed by lava fountaining. A resultant ash plume drifted E; ashfall was reported as far as Zafferana, about 10 km to the E. Two lava flows were observed at the summit of Etna, one towards the E within the Valle del Bove, and the second to the S. The E lava flow stopped 3 km away at the base of the Serra Giannicola Grande, within the W Valle del Bove. The second flow stopped near Mt. Frumento Supino (less than 1 km S of the summit). The INGV-CT monitoring web cameras showed that the eruption lasted about 5 hours.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


4 April-10 April 2007

In the morning of 29 March, an increase in volcanic tremor at Etna was accompanied by lava fountaining and an ash plume that drifted NE. Three fissures opened and produced lava flows. The first two fissures produced lava flows from vents located on the SE flank of Bocca Nuova and in the saddle between Bocca Nuova and Southeast Crater (SEC), in the same location of the October-November 2006 events. The two flows merged down slope and traveled less than 1 km S, halting at the rim of Cratere del Piano. The third fissure opened at the E base of SEC, and the lava flow spread within the upper Valle del Bove. The flows stopped by early afternoon. Ash and lapilli fallout occurred in a narrow zone between SEC, Rifugio Citelli and Giardini Naxos, on the NE flank of the volcano.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


13 December-19 December 2006

Based on increased volcanic tremor, INGV reported that weak Strombolian activity and emissions of lava and ash from the SE Crater of Etna occurred on 6 December. Later that day, seismicity dropped and explosive activity stopped. On 11 December, INGV monitoring cameras recorded Strombolian activity that resumed from a pit on the SE Crater, following a weak increase of seismicity. Lava was emitted continuously from the E flank of the SE Crater since 13 October. Lava also flowed from a vent at 2800 m elevation on the W headwall of the Valle del Bove. The eruption and lava flows from the 2800-m vent finished on 15 December. The Toulouse VAAC reported that a diffuse plume possibly containing ash was intermittently visible from a webcam on 13 December, drifting E.

Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 November-5 December 2006

Based on a pilot report and satellite imagery, the Toulouse VAAC reported that an ash plume from Etna was visible during 4-5 December.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 November-28 November 2006

INGV reported that a black ash plume from Etna rose above cloud cover to an altitude of 4.8 km (15,700 ft) a.s.l. on 21 November at about 1500. Light ashfall was reported from areas E and NE, including Rifugio Citelli (6 km NE of the SE Crater). After 1900, the cloud cover dissipated and the SE Crater came into view. Strombolian activity generated jets of material greater than 300 m high. Lava flowed down the SSE flanks and continued into 23 November. According to the Toulouse VAAC, mild eruption plumes were visible on an INGV webcam on 24 November. Due to the possible presence of ash plumes, the Fontanarossa airport in E Sicily closed from the evening of 24 November until early 28 November.

Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), AGI News - Agenzia Giornalistica Italia


8 November-14 November 2006

An English-language report on Etna's activity during 31 August-5 November that was recently prepared and distributed by scientists from the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Volcanologia (INGV) is summarized this week.

Strombolian activity and lava flows from SE Crater that began on 31 August continued until 15 September. During 22-27 September, 3-6 October, and 10-11 October, new but similar eruptive episodes with Strombolian explosions produced lava flows.

On 12 October, a short fissure opened on the ESE flank at the base of SE Crater. Lava spread in the upper Valle del Bove and advanced a few hundred meters downslope. On 17 October, mild spattering led to the growth of three hornitos on the fissure. Vigorous Strombolian activity from a vent in the SE Crater and large explosions occurred on 20 October. Lava flowed less than 1 km SE and a new cone grew at the summit.

On 23 October, vigorous Strombolian activity and lava fountaining from SE Crater marked a new eruptive episode. Lava flowed down the ESE flank and the summit cone rapidly grew. The explosive activity ceased the next day and was followed by ash emissions. Field observations revealed that a 50 m wide collapse pit opened on the SE flank and the new cone at the summit of the SE Crater had collapsed.

On 25 October ash emissions and weak Strombolian activity were observed from the summit of the SE Crater. Lava flows were emitted from fissures on the SSE flank and the S base of the central summit cone. On 27 October, ash emissions were followed by lava flows from the SSE flank fissure. Ash emissions on 29 and 30 October produced ashfall in inhabited areas including Catania, 27 km S of the summit cone. Lava continued to flow from the 25 October fissure and from the 12 October fissure at least until 5 November, when field observers reported actively flowing lava in the uppermost portions of the flow fields.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


6 September-12 September 2006

On 14 July, a fissure opened on the E flank of the SE Crater of Etna and produced a lava flow that traveled E to the Valle del Bove. Moderate Strombolian activity from the E flank of the SE Crater produced a small amount of ashfall on Catania (~25 km SSE of the volcano). The lava flow reached a maximum distance of 3 km within the Valle del Bove and ceased on 24 July. On 26 July, strong explosions were heard from the rim of the NE crater.

On 31 August, Strombolian activity from the summit of the SE Crater produced lapilli and bombs that fell mainly in the crater. The ejecta filled the crater and overflowed on the E side on 5 September, forming lava falls that accumulated in a steep-sided circular depression on the middle part of the E flank. On 7 September, the sluggish a'a' flow breached the E rim and spread out on the E flank of the SE Crater and towards the Valle del Bove rim. Explosive activity at the SE Crater summit produced lava blocks that fell to the base of the cone.

On 10 September, a rockfall from a wall that divided the SE Crater and the depression on the middle part of the E flank produced an ash plume that drifted W. Lava flows and Strombolian activity from the summit of the SE Crater continued on 11 September.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


2 February-8 February 2005

INGV-CT reported that the effusive eruption that began at Etna on 7 September 2004 continued through 27 January 2005. On 18 January the INGV-CT web camera recorded a dense, pulsating gas plume emanating from the summit of Northeast Crater for a few minutes. During the afternoon of the 18th, a new lava flow formed upslope along the 2,620-m eruptive fissure at about 2,450 m elevation. The lava flow spread about 200 m SE along the middle wall of the western Valle del Bove. The flow moved slowly, stopping after about 24 hours. Lava emission stopped from the ephemeral vents below 2,000 m elevation. The lower ephemeral vents started to emit lava again on 19 January. During the afternoon of 22 January, two new lava flows traveled from 2,400 m elevation, along the same lava-tube system fed by the 2,620-m-elevation vent. Two parallel, fast-moving flows spread E. They were still visible on images recorded on 27 January by the INGV-CT web camera at Milo. In addition, a number of ephemeral vents and small flows at the lower end of the lava tube were visible.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


5 January-11 January 2005

On 8 January, Etna erupted plumes of black ash from its SE Crater. Following the eruption, a reddish glow emanated from the crater. Toulouse VAAC reported that the ash was barely discernable by satellite imagery.

Sources: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


6 October-12 October 2004

According the Etna Volcan Sicilen website, lava emission continued at Etna during 6-11 October from vents around 2,620 m and 2,350 m elevations. Lava emission from the 2,620-m-elevation vent flowed in several arms down Valle del Bove. At the 2,350-m-elevation vent, lava flowed in tunnels for tens of meters.

Source: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


15 September-21 September 2004

News reports indicated that INGV scientists, during a helicopter survey on 15 September, noted that both of the effusive openings on the western side of the Valle del Bove had decreased in activity. The lava flow from the vent at 2,620 m a.s.l. had reached a maximum length of 1,450 m but had almost stopped, like the smaller one near Monti Centenari at 1,900 m a.s.l.

Source: AGI News - Agenzia Giornalistica Italia


8 September-14 September 2004

INGV-CT reported that at about 1030 on 7 September an effusive eruption began at Etna's summit. An approximately 230-m-long fissure opened at the base of Southeast Crater without any significant accompanying seismicity. Lava flowed from the base of the fissure, spreading SE towards the Valle del Bove. After 2 days of slow expansion of the field of fractures, between 0600 and 0700 on 10 September a new effusive vent opened at 2,650-m elevation on the upper western flank of the Valle del Bove. A lava flow poured out from this vent towards the E, spreading on the upper wall of the Valle del Bove. No explosive activity accompanied the emission of lava, but some phreatic explosions were triggered by lava flowing on a thick layer of snow. By 0930 the longest branch of the lava flow was 300 m long and 50 m wide. On the afternoon of 13 September, another effusive vent opened within the Valle del Bove, at about 2,200-m elevation, about 500 m SE of the previous vent. A lava flow from this vent spread in the valley at low output rate, while the previous flow from the vent at 2,650 m continued to feed a 1-km long lava flow. No lava flows threatened villages; the closest lava flow was at least 10 km from the nearest village.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


1 September-7 September 2004

According to news articles, on 7 September a fracture opened at the base of Etna's Southeast Crater between cones created by eruptions in 1999 and 2001.

Sources: Reuters, AGI News - Agenzia Giornalistica Italia


10 March-16 March 2004

INGV-CT reported that, following the last eruption of Etna on 28 January 2003, no further eruptive activity had been observed as of 8 March 2004. Summit activity was limited to pulsating gas emissions from Northeast Crater and from one of the two vents within Bocca Nuova crater. The other central crater vents and Southeast Crater were essentially blocked, producing only extremely weak gas emissions. The first significant variation from this very low level of activity occurred between 12 and 14 February 2004, when a weak ash emission was observed within the summit crater plume. The high amount of juvenile components within the ash suggested an uprise of magma into the summit feeder conduit of the volcano, the first to occur since the end of the 2002-2003 flank eruption. Since January, several shallow earthquakes have been recorded at Pernicana fault on the volcano's NE flank.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


11 February-17 February 2004

On 10 February, video footage showed ash emissions from Etna's Bocca Nuova and Northeast craters. Gas was emitted from Southeast and Voragine craters.

Source: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


5 November-11 November 2003

On 9 November aviation sources and web camera observations detected a small ash and steam plume at Etna. The plume rose to ~4 km a.s.l.

Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), US Air Force Weather Agency


24 September-30 September 2003

On 25 September an ash-and-steam plume was recorded by the Etna video camera reaching a height less than 4.5 km a.s.l. and drifting W.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 September-16 September 2003

Volcanic activity remained at low levels at Etna's summit craters. Abundant SO2 and steam emissions occurred at Northeast and Bocca Nuova craters. An M 3.3 earthquake occurred near Etna beneath the Ionian Sea.

Source: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


20 August-26 August 2003

INGV-CT reported that on 11 August at 1715 an increase in volcanic tremor at the summit seismic stations on Etna lasted about 15 minutes. The tremor was followed by about 30 minutes of strong explosion earthquakes that were recorded at all INGV-CT seismic stations. This was the first such event recorded since the end of the flank eruption on 28 January 2003. A red puff of ash from Northeast Crater was visible on a INGV-CT web camera located at Milo, about 11 km from the summit. Red glow from the crater was seen during the night. No explosive activity or loud sounds occurred during a field survey on 14 August, and no explosion earthquakes or tremor were recorded during 11-16 August. Periodic measurements of the gas plume at the volcano's summit revealed that gas emissions had generally decreased since the end of the flank eruption.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


13 August-19 August 2003

As of 16 August, the mild volcanic activity that was seen at Etna's Northeast Crater on 11 August was no longer observed. No incandescence was visible during the evening. Gas emission continued from the summit craters.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


6 August-12 August 2003

According to the Etna Volcan Sicilian website, loud noises emanated from Etna's Northeast Crater on 5 and 6 August, but only strong degassing was seen. The Italy's Volcanoes website reported that on the 11th, weak, fluctuating glow was observed at the base of a dense gas column emitted from Northeast Crater. The gas column has been emitted from the crater for several months.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


30 July-5 August 2003

During the end of July, heightened seismicity occurred in the eastern area of Etna. Also, vigorous degassing continued at Northeast crater, and less intense degassing occurred at Bocca Nuova crater. Four small earthquakes with magnitudes up to 2.6 occurred on 30 July between the villages of Milo and Zafferana on the volcano's E flank.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


25 June-1 July 2003

As of 30 June strong degassing continued at Etna's Northeast Crater, and there were minor emissions at Bocca Nuova crater. A series of small, shallow earthquakes occurred on 26 June under Etna's E flank near the village of Fornazzo. These earthquakes are thought to be associated with an unstable section of the volcano that is slowly sliding eastward.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


11 June-17 June 2003

The Toulouse VAAC reported that the Etna web video camera showed an ash plume below ~4 km a.s.l. drifting SE on 7 June. According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, in early June intense gas emissions took place from Northeast Crater, often feeding a plume that extended tens of kilometers. At Bocca Nuova crater strong gas emissions and occasional strong explosions occurred, but no fresh volcanic material was ejected beyond the pit. Gas was emitted from two pits in Voragine crater. There was a progressive increase in the number and activity of fumaroles near Southeast Crater's summit and the S flank.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 February-18 February 2003

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, on 12 February a series of ten earthquakes occurred on Etna's NE flank in the same area that was affected by vigorous seismicity and ground deformation before and during the initial phase of the 27 October 2002 to 28 January 2003 eruption. The largest earthquake occurred on 13 February at 0632, with a magnitude of 3.8 and a focal depth of 1.65 km.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


5 February-11 February 2003

INGV-CT reported that the Etna flank eruption that began on 27 October 2002 ended on 28 January 2003 after 3 months of activity. In January, lava flows and Strombolian explosions were confined to Etna's S flank at a 2,750-m-elevation vent. Lava flows emitted from this vent formed a fan, covering the previous lava-flow field. Strombolian activity from the 2,750-m-cinder cone significantly declined on 27 January and ended on 29 January. In addition, lava flows slowed down on the 27th and by the 29th were no longer fed and were cooling down. At the same time there was a significant decrease in SO2 emission to a minimum of 2,000 tons/day on 29 January. Volcanic-tremor amplitude also showed a marked decrease on 27 January. The end of the eruption was interpreted to occur on 28 January at 2240 when volcanic tremor decreased to background levels.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


29 January-4 February 2003

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, the eruption that began at Etna on 26-27 October 2002 ended during 28-29 January 2003. During the previous week, volcanic activity decreased at the pyroclastic cone on Etna's upper S flank and by the evening of the 28th seismic and volcanic activity had ceased.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 January-28 January 2003

According to the Etna Volcan Sicilien website, during 22-27 January low-to-moderate activity continued at the 2,750-m-elevation pyroclastic cone on Etna's upper S flank. Occasional strong explosions, and gas-and-ash emissions occurred. Lava flows were observed traveling to the S and W.

Sources: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 January-21 January 2003

According to the Etna Volcan Sicilien website, on 15 January ash emission increased at the 2,750-m-elevation pyroclastic cone on the volcano's upper S flank. There was also an associated increase in lava emission towards the S. On the 16th explosive activity continued at the 2,750-m-elevation cone, with occasional explosions ejecting volcanic material onto an area within 300 m in the crater. On the 20th a reduction in activity occurred at the pyroclastic cone in comparison to the previous day, with ten explosions occurring in 8 hours. According to the Toulouse VAAC, low-level steam-and-ash clouds were occasionally visible on the Etna web camera.

Sources: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 January-14 January 2003

According to the Etna Volcan Sicilien website, a reduction in explosive activity at the 2,750-m pyroclastic cone on the upper S flank of the volcano occurred for about a week until 10 January. On the 10th explosions occurred every few seconds, sending volcanic material several meters high that fell within the cone. Lava flows from the cone traveled towards the S.

Sources: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Italy's Volcanoes, Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


31 December-6 January 2003

According to the Etna Volcan Sicilian website Strombolian activity continued at the crater at 2,750 m elevation during 31 December to 4 January. Explosive activity was accompanied by weak, sporadic ash emission. During 3-4 January the level of activity at the crater seemed to be lower than during the previous days. Lava was emitted from a fissure at the base of the 2,750-m crater that split into two arms, with both traveling S.

Sources: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 December-30 December 2002

INGV-CT reported that the eruption that began at Etna on 27 October continued through 23 December. Lava flows and Strombolian activity occurred at the volcano's S flank at the 2,750 m vent. During 9-10 December, two vents opened at the SE base of the 2,750-m cinder cone that fed four major lava flows which spread between the S and SE. On the 17th a strong explosion occurred at a building in the Rifugio Sapienza tourist area. The explosion was not directly caused by the eruption, but by the vaporization of oil or water, still contained inside the building, when the lava flow contacted it.

The effusion rate from the two vents gradually decreased, eventually causing the closure of the western vent and then the lack of supply to the lava flows spreading SW towards Monte Nero. A new vent opened on 17 December at the S base of the 2,750 m cinder cone, a few meters W of the previous vents. A lava flow soon started from this vent, spreading SW towards Monte Nero. Lava flows from the 17 December vent slowed down and crusted over on 22 December, when a new vent opened at the SW base of the 2,750 m cinder cone. Again, a flow traveled SW towards Monte Nero. As of 23 December the lava flow continued to flow in this direction. SO2 emission rates remained relatively low, around 7,000 tons per day. Updated maps of the lava flows, and reports of the eruptive activity, gas emission, and ash composition can be found on the INGV-CT web page (in Italian).

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


18 December-24 December 2002

Eruptive activity continued during 16-21 December at Etna. According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, during the evening of 16-17 December explosive activity changed from lava-and-ash fountaining to discrete, ash-poor Strombolian explosions. Lava continued to flow from two vents at the S base of the active pyroclastic cone at 2,750-m elevation. During 19-21 December there were frequent shifts from lava fountaining and ash emissions to Strombolian explosions, and vice versa. Lava was no longer traveling towards the Rifugio Sapienza tourist complex. Ash had not fallen at the Catania airport since 8 December, so the airport returned to full service.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


11 December-17 December 2002

According to an INGV-CT report, the eruption that began at Etna on 27 October continued through 13 December. On 8 December there was a sudden change in eruptive style. Strong Strombolian explosions from the 2,800-m vent replaced previous fire fountaining, signaling the end of ash emissions for about 24 hours. On 9 December fire fountaining resumed at this vent, but on the10th activity changed to Strombolian explosions. This alternating activity culminated on 10 December with the opening of two vents on the SSE base of the cone and the emission of two lava flows. These flows spread SW towards Monte Nero, and S towards the cinder cone that formed at 2,550-m elevation during the 2001 eruption (also called Laghetto cone).

The S flow expanded on the 11th and 12th, and as of the 13th it had reached 300 m from the road leading to the Rifugio Sapienza tourist area, about 3.3 km from the vent. Civil Protection authorities, for the second time during this eruption, built an earth dam to divert the lava away from Rifugio Sapienza structures. SO2 emission rates significantly decreased on 1 December, dropping from previous estimates of ~20,000 to ~7,000 tons/day.

According to a Reuters news article, a lava flow that reached the Rifugio Sapienza tourist area on the evening of 16 December caused an explosion that destroyed a building and injured 32 people. The article stated that the exact cause of the explosion was unknown.

Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Reuters


4 December-10 December 2002

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, as of 5 December explosive activity continued at one of Etna's vents in the northernmost portion of the fissure that opened on Etna's upper S flank on 27 October. Ash emission and lava fountaining were vigorous, with continuous tephra fall affecting areas NE and E of Etna during several days before 5 December. Lava emission seemed to temporarily cease after about 3 weeks of near-continuous activity from vents on the flanks of the new pyroclastic-cone complex. Intermittent seismicity occurred at and around Etna. The largest reported damage occurred at a vacated school building near Giarre that partially collapsed. On 8 December ash emission and lava fountaining at the 2,800-m vent changed to violent Strombolian explosions. The following day ash emission recommenced, and on 10 December explosive activity shifted to the main pyroclastic cone, while the 2,800-m cone became less active, and lava was emitted that fed a flow to the S. By the 11th the lava flow had divided into several branches, with one slowly advancing toward the Rifugio Sapienza tourist area.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


27 November-3 December 2002

Etna continued to erupt through 2 December. According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, during the afternoon on 1 December ash fell in Catania and surrounding areas, leading to the closure of Fontanarossa Airport. On the 2nd, explosive activity continued at two vents on Etna's upper S flank and lava was emitted from a third vent at the SW base of the large pyroclastic cone that formed during the first 5 weeks of activity. In addition, the most advanced part of the most recently active lava flow that burned part of a forest on the SW flank seemed to have stopped. According to the Toulouse VAAC, since the eruption began on 27 October there has been unsteady activity at the volcano with periods of stronger activity leading to temporary ash emission.

Sources: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


20 November-26 November 2002

The 2002 Mt. Etna flank eruption that began on 27th October is continuing, after almost a month of activity. During this period several distinct phases of eruptive style have been observed. The first phase of the eruption ended on 5th November, when lava flows from the northern fissure stopped. Strombolian and fire-fountaining activity continued at the southern fissure, localised within the 2750 m elevation cinder cone that formed during early November. Lava jets reached heights of over 300 m above the crater, forming an ash column that spread mostly N, due to the strong wind, and reached an elevation of 4.7 km a.s.l..

The second phase of activity started on 12th November, when strong jets and continuous emission of ash gave way suddenly to mild Strombolian activity. Lava flows began to spread SW from the 2750 m vent on the 13th November. These flows ran parallel to the October flows towards Monte Nero and achieved a maximum length of 4 km on 19th November, stopping just 300 m before Casa Santa Barbara, at 1770 m a.s.l.. Lava output from the main vent then declined, and overflows covered the previous flow channel. As of 25th November the most advanced active flow fronts were located within 1 km from the vent.

Between 20 and 21st November another new vent opened on the SSE base of the 2750 m cinder cone. This vent produced a new lava flow that spread south towards Rifugio Sapienza. The flow length reached 1.9 km on the 22nd, and 2.7 km on the 23rd, covering the Rifugio K. The Rifugio Sapienza was threatened by the flow, and Civil Protection soon built up two earth barriers to divert the lava towards the east of buildings, as in the 2001 eruption. This diversion was once again successful, and the flow eventually stopped on 24th, a few metres before reaching the SP92 road connecting Zafferana to Rifugio Sapienza, after having travelled 3.6 km from the main vent.

Early on the 25th November, two new explosive vents opened to the N and SSE of the 2750 m cinder cone. This caused a shift in explosive activity from the crater of the previous cone to the newly formed vents, which produced fire fountaining activity and an ash plume rising to 4.7 km elevation and spreading north. Immediately afterwards the effusion rate of the south lava flow (towards Rifugio Sapienza) significantly decreased, and slightly increased in the southwest flow (towards Casa Santa Barbara). This caused new overflows above the previous flow channel on the lava flows directed to Casa Santa Barbara. The low effusion rate did not allow these flows to reach previous flow lengths, and they were less than 1 km long when last observed on 25th November. Observation of the flow field was impossible on the 26 November due to poor weather conditions.

SO2 emission from the volcano is still very high and fluctuating, keeping within the range of 20,000 to 7,000 tons per day. Taken together, the high amount of gas released by the volcano, the still high volcanic tremor, and the explosive activity still ongoing at the south vent, rather suggest that the eruption may continue for some time.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


13 November-19 November 2002

The eruption that began at Etna on 27 October continued through 12 November. INGV-CT reported that on 12 November at 1340 volcanic tremor recorded by their seismic network gradually increased, reaching an amplitude two times higher than before. This seismicity increase occurred when fire fountaining and ash emission from the vent at 2,750 m elevation on the volcano's S flank suddenly stopped and were substituted by Strombolian activity. This change marked an increase in the magma level within the conduit, and on the 13th at 1600 a lava flow was emitted from the S base of the upper cinder cone that formed around the 2,750-m vent. The lava flow spread S, filling up the intermediate and lower cinder cones along the same eruptive fissure. It expanded SW towards Monte Nero, running parallel to the lava flow that had stopped on 31 October. By 14 November at 0930 the lava-flow front had reached 1.2 km in length, was at an elevation of 2,450 m a.s.l., and traveled at a velocity of about 2-3 m per minute. Strombolian activity was substituted by fire fountaining and the emission of ash that reached 3.5 km a.s.l. and drifted N and E. SO2 emission from Etna remained very high and fluctuated around 20,000 tons per day. According to a news article, Fontanarossa Airport in Catania, which had been closed since 10 November, reopened on the 13th. The Toulouse VAAC reported that moderate-to-severe ash emissions had occurred at Etna since the eruption began, but had become weaker since the afternoon of 12 November.

Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 November-12 November 2002

An eruption began at Etna on 27 October. According to a report from INGV-CT, the lava supply from Etna's main vents ended by 3 November. At that time lava flows were no longer emitted from the volcano's S and N flanks. As of the 11th, fire fountaining continued from the S vent at 2,750 m elevation, near Torre del Filosofo. All data (gas emission, volcanic tremor, composition of the ash) suggest a steady state at this vent. Ash fallout caused intermittent disruption at the Catania airport and damage to buildings. The Toulouse VAAC reported that moderate-to-severe ash emissions had occurred since the eruption began. During 6-12 November ash clouds rose to a maximum height of ~6.1 km a.s.l.

Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 October-5 November 2002

Volcanic and seismic activity continued at Etna during 29 October to 4 November after a new eruption commenced on 27 October. The eruption consisted of fissures opening on the volcano's S and N flanks, lava emission from these fissures, and fire fountains rising several hundreds of meters. Significant ash emissions led to the closure of Fontanarossa airport and produced ash clouds that drifted as far as Libya. According to an INGV-CT report, two major lava flows were emitted from the lower end of the northern fissure and spread toward the NE and E. The NE flow stopped on 31 October after traveling 2 km, when a decline in effusion rate was observed. As of 1 November the E flow had slowed down, but it was still moving and crusting over in the middle portion of the flow field. A few sectors of solid crust were detected during a survey with the helicopter of the Civil Protection using a thermal camera. This suggests that a lava tube is forming on this lava flow. The lava flow from the S fissure started about 12 hours after the N one, spread SW, and split in two branches around Monte Nero, following the same path as one of the 2001 eruption's lava branches. The S flows stopped on 31 October, reaching a total length of about 1 km. Fire fountains and phreatomagmatic activity decreased in intensity with time at both the N and S fissures. As of 1 November the effusion rate from the N fissure was declining, which increased the possibility of lava-tube formation along the E flow.

According to the Toulouse VAAC, ash was emitted from Etna during the report period and was occasionally visible on satellite imagery rising to 6.1 km a.s.l. On 1 November ash was visible on satellite imagery extending ENE from Etna's summit, reaching the coast of Greece. On several occasions meteorological clouds in the vicinity of Etna prohibited satellite views, but the Etna web video camera located in Catania showed continuous ash emission on 4 November.

Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 October-29 October 2002

A relatively large eruption began at Etna on 27 October, following a series of ~200 small earthquakes the previous evening. The eruption began with fissures opening on the volcano's S and NE slopes around 2,700 m elevation, between Southeast Crater and Montagnola cone. Lava fountains rose 100-200 m, lava flows were emitted from the fissures, and significant ash plumes were produced. On the 28th seismicity continued, with a M 3.8 earthquake occurring beneath the volcano. Lava flows cut across the road connecting the towns of Linguaglossa and Piano Provenzana and lava ignited several forest fires near Piano Provenzana. The lava flows were estimated to be 365 m wide and 6.1 m high.

Ditches were dug in an effort to control lava flows, but by the 29th they were completely covered by lava. Authorities also tried to control the flows by having planes douse the lava with water, causing the flows to cool and stagnate, but they continued to travel down the volcano's flanks. Authorities stressed that the popular ski town of Linguaglossa (6,000 residents), located ~15 km NE of Etna's summit, was not in danger of being engulfed by lava flows. As a precautionary measure ~50 residents were evacuated and schools were closed. By the 28th lava flows had destroyed several hotels, restaurants, a ski school, ski lift pylons, and power lines on the volcano's flanks. Ash fell in towns at the base of the volcano. Some streets in the town of Nicolosi, ~15 km S of the summit, were covered with a 5-cm-thick layer of ash.

During 27 to at least 29 October ash clouds were visible on satellite imagery and the Etna volcano video camera, reaching a maximum height of ~6.4 km a.s.l. The clouds drifted towards the SE and on the 27th one had reached ~350 km S to Libya. From the beginning of the eruption, Catania's Fontanarossa airport was closed. Ash emissions continued on the 29th and a M 4.4 earthquake occurred around 1100, damaging hundreds of buildings in the town of Santa Venerina on the volcano's SE flank.

Sources: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Associated Press, Reuters


16 October-22 October 2002

On 17 October around 1530, a significant amount of brown ash was emitted from Etna's Northeast Crater. No activity was visible during the night from cities at the base of the volcano. Earthquakes with magnitudes between 2.3 and 2.7 occurred on the morning of the 18th during 0427-0500. Approximately 30 minutes later the Northeast Crater expelled plumes of brown ash.

Source: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


2 October-8 October 2002

When weather conditions were favorable on 22 and 27 September, black ash was seen rising from Etna's Northeast Crater. On the 27th ash was also emitted from Bocca Nuova crater. On 1 October degassing was seen at Bocca Nuova every 5-10 minutes, lasting ~30 seconds. No ash was emitted. Poor weather conditions prevented observations at the other craters.

Source: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


11 September-17 September 2002

During 9-14 September, Strombolian activity continued at Etna's Northeast Crater, with ash and incandescent material being ejected from it. Volcanic bombs ejected vertically to heights of 100-150 m fell within the crater. Low-level ash clouds were visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


4 September-10 September 2002

On 4 September the strong ash emissions that occurred at Etna's Northeast Crater the previous week were no longer observed, and only degassing occurred. Ash was emitted from Bocca Nuova crater once every 5-10 minutes and gas was emitted from Voragine and Southeast craters. On the night of 6 September, a M 5.6 earthquake, centered near the town of Palermo (~145 km NW of Etna) produced aftershocks that were felt in Catania (25 km SSE of Etna). On 8 September, strong Strombolian activity was observed at Northeast Crater. Explosions occurred every 1-3 minutes and incandescent material was ejected outside of the crater.

Source: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


14 August-20 August 2002

The Toulouse VAAC reported that beginning on 18 August around 1030, a web camera revealed that ash was near Etna's summit. Ash was also visible on satellite imagery. The Etna Volcan Sicilian website reported that during a visit to Etna on 18 August, ash was emitted from Northeast Crater, and gas, ash, and blocks were emitted from Bocca Nuova crater. Only gas was emitted from Voragine and Southeast craters.

Sources: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


7 August-13 August 2002

The Toulouse VAAC reported that beginning on 9 August at 0630 ash was visible at Etna on a web cam. The ash was around summit level and was not visible on satellite imagery. According to the Etna Volcan Sicilian website, during a visit to the summit on 8 August brown ash was emitted from Bocca Nuova crater. By the 9th only gas was released from Bocca Nuova.

Sources: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


31 July-6 August 2002

Activity continued at Etna during 31 July-6 August with brown ash explosions from Bocca Nuova crater. SO2 emissions were detected from Voragine crater on 4 August. Strong explosions originating in Northeast Crater were felt during the afternoon of 6 August. The area near Northeast Crater contained numerous bombs, some more than 70 cm in size weighing more than 30 kg.

Source: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


24 July-30 July 2002

During a visit to Etna on 26 July it was revealed that Strombolian activity had continued at Northeast Crater. Activity consisted of volcanic bombs being thrown beyond the rim of the crater. There was very little activity at Voragine and Southeast craters. According to the Toulouse VAAC, ash was observed on 29 July at 0855, possibly around summit level.

Sources: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


17 July-23 July 2002

During 19-21 July, explosions at Etna's Northeast Crater emitted gas and ash, and ejected volcanic bombs and fresh lava that landed within the crater. At Bocca Nuova crater, gas-and-ash emissions and explosions also occurred. At Voragine crater, degassing was less intense than it had been during previous observations on 22 June 2002. According to the Air Force Weather Agency, surface observations revealed that on 22 July a low-level ash cloud was visible. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), US Air Force Weather Agency


19 June-25 June 2002

During 17-23 June, ash continued to be emitted from Etna's Northeast Crater and to a lesser extent from Bocca Nuova crater. Ash plumes from Northeast Crater rose several hundred meters. Quiet degassing occurred at Voragine and Southeast craters. Seismicity was at low levels during the week.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


12 June-18 June 2002

On 13 June ash emissions, which began several days earlier, intensified at Etna's Northeast Crater. A slight increase in seismicity occurred at the same time, with a few events being felt by residents on the volcano's S and SE flanks. The Toulouse VAAC reported that volcanic ash was observed on satellite imagery on 14 June at 0450 drifting SSW at heights of ~2.4-4.6 km a.s.l. Beginning on 16 June ash was emitted from Bocca Nuova crater as well. No incandescence was visible at the volcano during the night.

Sources: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


29 May-4 June 2002

During late May, volcanic and seismic activity were low at Etna. Volcanism consisted of gas emissions from Northeast, Voragine, and Bocca Nuova craters. Also, several small new fumaroles formed on the lower SE flank of Southeast Crater during about 26 May to 2 June. According to Italy's Volcanoes website, a visit to the summit craters on 30 May revealed that few changes had occurred there since the previous visit on 28 January.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


8 May-14 May 2002

During early May, degassing continued at Etna. It was most pronounced at Bocca Nuova and Northeast craters.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


24 April-30 April 2002

Ash emissions that had been occurring at Bocca Nuova crater for several weeks seemed to diminish during 23-25 April. During the 24th-25th, only ash-free gas emissions were observed, mostly from Bocca Nuova and Northeast craters. On the 28th a brief emission of brown ash was seen coming from the W side of Bocca Nuova. No felt earthquakes occurred after the 15th.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


17 April-23 April 2002

During 14-18 April, a dense ash plume persisted at the SE vent of Etna's Bocca Nuova crater. Dense ash-free plumes rose above Voragine and Northeast craters. Earthquakes continued on Etna's SE flank, and there were reports of seismicity on the NE flank.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


10 April-16 April 2002

Signs of unrest persisted at Etna during 6-14 April. On 13 April two earthquakes, with magnitudes 2.7-3, were felt by the local population. They occurred on the SE flank between the towns of Zafferana and Santa Venerina. During the report period, ash emissions were nearly continuous at Bocca Nuova crater, rising to several hundreds of meters. No incandescence was visible in the crater.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


3 April-9 April 2002

Ash emissions during 29 March-6 April at Etna's Bocca Nuova crater deposited ash as far as the town of Catania ~25 km SSE of the volcano. Ash emissions apparently stopped at Northeast Crater by 2 April; only steam was visible rising above the crater. During 4 and 5 April, earthquakes occurred at or near Etna with magnitudes up to 4.2.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


27 March-2 April 2002

Following almost 3 weeks of ash emissions from Etna's Bocca Nuova crater, around 25 March ash emissions began at Northeast Crater. The emissions appeared to coincide with a series of small earthquakes under the volcano's SE flank the night of 24-25 March. On the 27th and 28th ash from both craters rose in distinct puffs several hundreds of meters above the summit. On 28 March a small amount of ash fell on Etna's S flank, reaching as far as the town of Catania. The following day dark ash rose nearly continuously to several hundreds of meters above the summit. The Toulouse VAAC reported that no ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 March-26 March 2002

The emission of pink, lithic ash from Bocca Nuova crater that reportedly began on 9 March continued through 21 March. In addition, voluminous degassing occurred at Northeast Crater and there was minor fumarolic activity at Voragine and Southeast craters. No incandescence was visible at night.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


13 March-19 March 2002

Beginning around 9 March, near continuous, pulsating emissions of lithic ash were erupted from the NW vent of Bocca Nuova crater and an ash plume drifted dozens of km. The source vent of this activity was also the site of deep-seated explosions during the past 6 months. According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, the emissions might be caused by collapses within the conduit, which are thought to have occurred repeatedly following the July-August 2001 eruption.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


6 March-12 March 2002

As of 7 March there had been no new eruptive activity at Etna for several months. Numerous small earthquakes were recorded beneath the volcano's S flank, where the largest of the July-August 2001 lava flows vented. Some of the earthquakes were felt by the population near the volcano.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


30 January-5 February 2002

On 30 January low levels of activity were observed at Etna. Loud explosions occurred approximately every 5-30 minutes in the NW pit of Bocca Nuova crater, but no solid material was ejected. Degassing occurred at Bocca Nuova, Voragine, Northeast, and Southeast craters.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


16 January-22 January 2002

In mid-January, increased gas emissions occurred at Southeast Crater, and increased gas-and-ash emissions occurred at Bocca Nuova crater. Very small amounts of ash fell on the E side of the volcano, as far as the town of Acireale, ~20 km SE of the volcano. No incandescent ejections were visible at night.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


2 January-8 January 2002

Volcanic activity has been low at Etna since the voluminous lava outburst during the July-August 2001 eruptive event. On 6 January low-level fumarolic activity occurred from the western rim of Southeast Crater at intervals of a few minutes. In addition, a dense gas plume was emitted from Bocca Nuova crater. The activity at both craters continued through at least 7 January.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


17 October-23 October 2001

As of 16 October moderate amounts of degassing took place at Etna's summit craters, with most occurring at Northeast Crater. A portion of the western crater rim of the scoria cone that formed during the July-August 2000 eruption at 2,100 m elevation collapsed into the vent.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


3 October-9 October 2001

During 4 and 5 October a large amount of degassing occurred at Northeast Crater. Degassing at Bocca Nuova crater was occasionally accompanied by ash emissions generated by the crumbling of the crater walls. Gas and "smoke" were continuously emitted from the edges of the new crater located at 2.55 km elevation.

Source: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


26 September-2 October 2001

According to reports on 28 September, gas emissions from Bocca Nuova crater had been vigorous at times during the previous few weeks. In addition, a dense gas plume was visible rising above Northeast Crater. The cones that formed during the July-August 2001 eruption on the S flank continued to emit heat and minor amounts of gas.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


12 September-18 September 2001

Volcanic activity resumed at Etna's summit on 11 September. Loud explosions emanated from the NW vent of Bocca Nuova crater at 5- to 10-minute intervals. The explosions were followed by dense gas clouds, but no volcanic fragments were ejected.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


5 September-11 September 2001

No new eruptive activity has occurred at Etna since 10 August. During the week strong degassing was observed at Bocca Nuova and Southeast craters.

Sources: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Italy's Volcanoes


22 August-28 August 2001

Volcanic activity was relatively low at Etna during the week. Degassing and seismic activity continued at Etna's summit craters.

Source: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


15 August-21 August 2001

During the week volcanic activity was relatively low at Etna, with no explosions or lava flows. There were several small earthquakes, and slight degassing at fissures on the volcano's flanks. Vapor was emitted from the summit craters, and was accompanied by occasional plumes of brown ash at Bocca Nuova crater.

Source: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


8 August-14 August 2001

As of 13 August lava flows appeared to cease advancing down the slopes of Etna. Slight degassing occurred from many of the fissures and the rate of SO2 emission was low in comparison to average values for the season.

Sources: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), BBC News


1 August-7 August 2001

News articles stated that around 1 August lava stopped advancing towards the Rifugio Sapienza tourist area, although lava in other parts of the volcano slowly continued to advance. According to the Toulouse VAAC, narrow ash clouds that rose to below 5.5 km a.s.l. were occasionally visible in satellite imagery and on Sistema Poseidon's web cam. The international Fontanarossa airport in Catania was closed, for the fourth time since the eruptive period began, during 2-5 August due to ash clouds in the area. The amount of ash emitted from the volcano decreased on 5 August and only steam with small amounts of ash located close to the ground was visible on the web cam.

Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Associated Press


25 July-31 July 2001

During 25-31 July the eruption that began on 17 July at Etna's Southeast Crater continued at the same five eruptive fissures as the previous week. One of the fissures was located on the NE flank and the other four on the S flank at elevations of 2,950, 2,700, 2,500, and 2,100 m. During 24-26 July eruptive activity declined at the 2,100 m fissure, but then intensified on 27 July to reach the original level of Strombolian activity on the evening of 28 July. On 26 July modest lava emission occurred at the NE-flank fissure. At the 2,500 m fissure, where the strongest explosive activity occurred, a change was noted from the mostly phreatomagmatic eruptions that were prominent during the previous week to more violent Strombolian explosions and lava effusion. After lava began to flow from the 2,500 m fissure on 25 July, a pyroclastic cone began to grow around three of the vents and by 30 July the cone was ~100 m high. At the 2,950 m fissure (near the base of Southeast Crater) and 2,700 m fissure lava emission and mild explosive activity continued.

On 26 July lava from the 2,500 m elevation fissure continued to flow towards Rifugio Sapienza tourist complex, and as of 31 July a cable car base station and a small tourist shop had been destroyed by lava that surpassed constructed earth barriers. Lava continued to flow from the lower vents of the 2,100 m fissure in the direction of the town of Nicolosi (~15 km SSE of the volcano), but it was no longer considered a significant threat to the town. Near-continuous ashfall occurred S of the volcano, including in the town of Catania, ~25 km SSE of the volcano. The international Fontanarossa airport in Catania was closed repeatedly on 29 and 30 July due to ash on the runways. The Toulouse VAAC reported that ash clouds were occasionally visible on the Sistema Poseidon web cam and satellite imagery, with the highest cloud rising ~5.5 km above the volcano.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Reuters, Associated Press


18 July-24 July 2001

A large flank eruption began on 17 July at Etna and produced several lava flows that were emitted from four new fissures and strong explosive activity at a fifth. Four of the fissures were on the SE flank, and the fifth was on the NE flank. There were fears that lava flows from two of the fissures would reach the town of Nicolosi (~15 km SSE of the volcano) and a nearby popular tourist area. According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, the 17th eruptive episode in 2001 began on the morning of 17 July and a few hours later a new eruptive fissure opened at the S base of the Southeast Crater cone (see map of fissure locations). Mild Strombolian activity occurred from the fissure and a lava flow extended SSE. During the evening of the 17th a second eruptive fissure emitted an extensive lava flow that spread SE toward the Valle del Bove rim. On 18 July at about 0200 a seismic swarm was accompanied by the opening of a third eruptive fissure at about 2,100 m elevation. Mild Strombolian activity and a sluggish lava flow traveled toward the S. Later in the day the lava flow crossed the main access road to the S flank of Etna and headed towards Nicolosi. A spectator was seriously injured when he fell while trying to avoid projectiles.

On the evening of 18 July the fourth eruptive vent since the episode began opened near 2,700 m elevation on the SE flank. The main explosive activity occurred at this vent, including powerful Strombolian blasts that sent incandescent volcanic bombs as high as 200 m and produced ash columns that rose several kilometers. Lava from this vent progressed towards the tourist complex around the Rifugio Sapienza. On 20 July around 1100 a fifth eruptive fissure became active, but unlike the other fissures it was on the NE flank in the Valle de Leone. Lava emitted from this fissure flowed SE.

By 22 July the lava flow from the third fissure was 4 km away from Nicolosi, but it was advancing very slowly over nearly flat terrain and appeared to have stopped by the next day. Earth barriers were created in an attempt to divert lava from the tourist complex that had already been damaged by volcanic bombs. Continuous ashfall occurred near the explosive fourth vent. The entire area between the towns of Giarre (~17 km E of the volcano) and Catania (~25 km SSE of the volcano) was covered by a thin layer of ash; there was an especially large amount of ash in Catania. The Fontanarossa International Airport of Catania was closed on 22 July and again the next day due to ashfall.

The Toulouse VAAC reported that the new Etna Sistema Poseidon webcam showed ash emission starting on 20 July. The previous webcam had been damaged by earthquakes near the start of the eruption. SE-drifting ash clouds were detected several times on satellite imagery. An ash cloud was reported to have reached a maximum height of ~5.2 km on 22 July. According to news reports, a state of emergency was declared for the area near Etna on 20 July. As of 24 July the eruption was continuing.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), NASA Earth Observatory, Reuters


11 July-17 July 2001

On 13 July the 16th eruptive episode in 2001 took place at the NNE vent of Etna's Southeast Crater. During the 4-hour-long episode, lava flows, Strombolian activity, and several earthquakes occurred. The largest two earthquakes had magnitudes of 3.9 and were felt 15 km away in the town of Nicolosi. The Toulouse VAAC reported that a small ash cloud was visible on the Sistema Poseidon Etna webcam and on satellite imagery. It did not rise above 3.7 km a.s.l.

Sources: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Associated Press


4 July-10 July 2001

After 4.5 days of low-level activity at Etna, an eruption occurred at Southeast Crater on 4 July that lasted for approximately 5 hours. The episode began with lava flowing from the NNE vent towards the NE and SSE and was followed by modest Strombolian activity. At the summit vent powerful explosions sent an incandescent fountain up to 400-500 m high and several large magma bubbles burst sending fragments to the base of the Southeast Crater cone. A dense tephra column rose from the summit vent and deposited ash on Etna's SE flank. Fine ash and 3- to 5-mm-long Pele's hair fell as far as the town of Acireale, ~20 km SE of the volcano. On 7 July another eruptive episode lasted for approximately 1 hour at Southeast Crater. The episode consisted of lava flows and the eruption of black ash and small volcanic blocks that reached a height of ~1 km above the volcano and drifted to the E.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


27 June-3 July 2001

An eruptive episode began on the evening of 27 June at the NNE vent on Southeast Crater. The episode began with lava flowing from the NNE vent and was followed by Strombolian activity at the NNE vent and the summit. Volcanic material was ejected to a maximum height of 400 m. No sustained lava fountains developed. The Toulouse VAAC reported that Sistema Poseidon's Etna webcam recorded renewed volcanic activity on 28 June at 0030 and associated steam and ash that did not rise far above the summit. The eleventh eruptive episode in one month began on 30 June. Inclement weather inhibited visual observations, but during a break in cloud cover around 0400 mild Strombolian activity was observed. Seismic data revealed that the episode ended around 1600. On 3 July increased degassing was observed at Northeast Crater.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 June-26 June 2001

During the week two eruptive episodes occurred at Etna's Southeast Crater. On 22 June an eruption began after 3 days of low activity. The eruption was similar to the previous episodes, with lava flowing down the flanks of the volcano prior to Strombolian activity. Volcanic bombs were thrown 300-400 m above the crater and lava fountains reached a maximum height of 150 m. An ash plume rose up to 3 km above the crater. The Toulouse VAAC reported that the ash plume was visible on Sistema Poseidon's Etna webcam for ~2 hours, but not on satellite imagery. The same day very strong degassing was observed at Bocca Nuova crater. On 24 June another eruptive episode lasted more than 2 hours.

Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


13 June-19 June 2001

The Italy's Volcanoes website reported that on 13 June, after ~44 hours of low activity, the fourth eruptive episode within in a week began at Southeast Crater. The episode lasted longer and was more intense than the previous three episodes. Lava flowed from a vent on the NNE flank of Southeast Crater cone. During the most intense phase of the eruption lava fountains rose 150-200 m above the NNE flank vent. Strombolian bursts occurred so frequently that they eventually blended into one continuous pulsating fountain that rose up to 400 m. Also bursts periodically sent bombs up to 500 m above the crater rim. A small amount of ash was emitted with many of the stronger bursts. On 15 June another eruptive episode occurred with activity similar to the 13 June episode.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


6 June-12 June 2001

According the Italy's Volcanoes website, Etna's Southeast Crater was inactive on 6 June, but the following day volcanic activity commenced with lava flowing from the NNE side of the Southeast Crater cone and Strombolian bursts from the crater's summit vent. By 8 June volcanic activity decreased. A new eruptive episode began at Southeast Crater on 9 June that consisted of lava flows and Hawaiian-style lava fountaining from the NNE flank vent, and Strombolian bursts from the summit vent. Volcanic activity decreased until 11 June when Southeast Crater erupted again with more intense Strombolian activity at the summit vent than in the previous episode, and mild Strombolian activity at the NNE flank vent. A dark, tephra-laden cloud was observed rising from the summit vent, while lava fountains rose ~150 m above the NNE flank vent. The Toulouse VAAC reported that weak volcanic activity was visible on Etna WebCam imagery during 0445-0515. By 12 June no volcanic activity was observed at Southeast Crater.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Reuters


30 May-5 June 2001

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, volcanic activity was at similar levels as it has been during the previous few weeks. Lava continued to travel from a vent on the NNE flank of the Southeast Crater cone, and mild, discontinuous Strombolian activity continued at the Southeast Crater's summit vent. Scientists determined that the lava effusion rate was approximately 5-10 cubic meters per second, which is high for Etna. On 31 May mountain guides reported that pressure waves, which were caused by explosions, were observed approximately every 10 minutes and that volcanic bombs were thrown ~100 m above the crater rim. Degassing was observed at Southeast Crater and occurred to a lesser extent at Bocca Nuova crater, but increased at Northeast Crater.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


23 May-29 May 2001

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, through 25 May at Southeast Crater lava continued to flow from a small cone on its NNE flank and mild Strombolian activity continued at its summit vent. Volcanic activity had been relatively regular since a strong eruptive episode began on 9 May.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


16 May-22 May 2001

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, mild eruptive activity continued at Southeast Crater, with persistent lava outflow from a vent on the NNE flank of its cone. Very weak Strombolian bursts occurred at the summit vent of the cone that occasionally sent incandescent bombs up to 100 m above the crater rim.

A Spanish tourist who visited the volcano alone has been missing since 14 May and is presumed dead. The remains of her tent were found on 18 May near the rim of Bocca Nuova crater. Local press sources reported that a rescue team found footprints leading from the tent to the rim of one of the two active pits within the crater, but no prints were found leading back from the pit. It is possible that the tourist was standing on the rim of the pit when a portion of it broke loose.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


9 May-15 May 2001

The Italy's Volcanoes website reported that after more than 8 months of minor activity (slow lava flows, degassing, light ash emission, and low-level Strombolian activity), a new episode of vigorous volcanic activity began at Southeast Crater on 9 May. On 6 May active lava flows and explosions were observed launching pyroclasts and lithics onto the volcano's S flank every 7-10 seconds. On 9 May an obvious increase in activity occurred, with Strombolian bursts occurring every few seconds. By 1745 activity further increased and lava fountains rose up to 100 m above the NNE flank fissure while a dense eruption cloud simultaneously rose above the summit vent. Local press sources reported that air traffic was rerouted during the activity. The high level of activity continued at Southeast Crater through at least 14 May and strong degassing occurred at Bocca Nuova crater.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)


2 May-8 May 2001

Sistema Poseidon reported that during 30 April to 6 May degassing occurred at Bocca Nuova, Southeast, and Voragine craters. In addition to degassing, ash was emitted from Bocca Nuova crater, although after 3 May the emissions became more sporadic. Lava continued to flow from the northern vent on Southeast Crater and hornitos were formed in the area.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


25 April-1 May 2001

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, activity at Etna's summit craters progressively increased beginning on about 20 April. Lava effusion from a vent on the lower NNE flank of Southeast Crater cone continued, with an increase in the effusion rate on 26 April. Ash vented from Bocca Nuova and light gas was emitted from a vent on the NNE flank of Southeast Crater.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


18 April-24 April 2001

Sistema Poseidon reported that during 9-15 April volcanic activity at Etna was similar to the previous week. Strombolian activity continued at Bocca Nuova crater, although by the end of the report period activity decreased in comparison to previous weeks. Lava also continued to flow down the NE flank of Southeast Crater, and degassing continued at Voragine and Northeast craters. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation reported that on about 22 April thirty small earthquakes occurred near Etna, but did not cause any injuries or property damage.

Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), ABC News - Australian Broadcasting Corporation


11 April-17 April 2001

Sistema Poseidon reported that during 2-8 April Strombolian activity continued at Bucca Nuova crater. In addition, degassing of the crater was accompanied by ash emissions. Lava continued to flow from a fissure on the NE flank of Southeast Crater. Lava also flowed from a 6-m-high tumulus that formed on the N flank of the volcano at an elevation of approximately 3,095 m. Voragine and Northeast craters continued degassing at low levels.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


4 April-10 April 2001

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, volcanic activity at Etna decreased slightly during the week ending on 6 April. The Bocca Nuova crater produced sporadic ash emissions, rather than the Strombolian activity that was observed in March 2001. Lava continued to flow from a vent low on the NNE flank of the Southeast Crater cone, as it has since approximately 20 January 2001.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


28 March-3 April 2001

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, volcanic activity continued at Etna through the end of March. Continuous Strombolian activity was observed at a pit in Bocca Nuova Crater. Lava continued to slowly flow from the NNE flank of the Southeast Crater.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


7 March-13 March 2001

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, during the first half of March mild, but occasionally vigorous eruptive activity continued at Etna's summit craters much like it has since mid January. Near-continuous Strombolian activity continued at two vents in Bocca Nuova Crater and Strombolian activity intermittently occurred within the central pit of the Northeast Crater. Short lobes of lava continued to form after slowly emerging from a vent on the NNE flank of the Southeast Crater cone.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


28 February-6 March 2001

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, during late February fluctuating eruptive activity continued at Etna's summit craters. Strombolian activity continued at two vents in Bocca Nuova Crater and within the central pit of Northeast Crater. In addition, lava continued to slowly flow from the NNE flank of the Southeast Crater.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


21 February-27 February 2001

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, on 20 February slow lava extrusion continued from a vent on the NNE flank of the Southeast Crater cone. Mild eruptive activity continued from the Bocca Nuova Crater, with Strombolian bursts from two vents on the NW and E parts of the crater. During 18-20 February, a slight increase in activity was observed at the Bocca Nuova Crater.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


14 February-20 February 2001

According to the Stromboli On-Line website, on 12 February a Stromboli On-Line research group observed lava flowing from the Southeast Crater's NE fissure as it has since late January. Lava and gas were emitted from a small tumulus in strong pulses and flowed several hundred meters into Valle Leone. On 14 February Voragine and Northeast craters were observed emitting steam and Strombolian activity occurred at both of Bocca Nuova Crater's vents. The Strombolian activity at the Bocca Nuova's NW vent was irregular and occasionally reached at least the height of the crater rim. Strombolian activity at the Bocca Nuova's SE vent was more vigorous with eruptions every few seconds. The explosions were directed roughly vertically and volcanic bombs reached up to several hundred meters above the crater rim.

Source: Stromboli On-Line


31 January-6 February 2001

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, since 20 January lava has continuously issued at a low but persistent rate from a vent on the NNE flank of the Southeast Crater. The lava formed a small field of overlapping and adjacent flows that extend a few hundred meters. At Bocca Nuova Crater Strombolian activity increased, with ejecta being thrown above the crater rim.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


24 January-30 January 2001

Sistema Poseidon reported that during 22-28 January, eruptive activity at Etna was dominated by modest, intermittent lava flows that were emitted from the radial fracture on the N flank of the Southeast Crater. The Bocca Nuova Crater mostly produced ash-and-gas emissions during the beginning of the report period, but they decreased near the end of the period. At night, weak Strombolian activity was observed inside the crater. Limited gas emissions were released from the Northeast and Voragine craters.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


17 January-23 January 2001

According to Italy's Volcanoes website, volcanic activity increased at Etna. On 15 January intense degassing occurred at the Bocca Nuova and SE craters. On 16 January, weak Strombolian bursts occurred at 5- to 10-minute intervals at the summit vent of the SE Crater and strong gas emissions with occasional ash were released from Bocca Nuova Crater. On 21 and 22 January an active lava flow was visible extending from a fissure on the N flank of SE Crater, but no explosive activity was observed.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


10 January-16 January 2001

There has been no new eruptive activity at the summit craters of Etna since early December. Beginning on 7 January 2001, degassing from Bocca Nuova became more rhythmic, indicating some deep explosive activity. On 11 January gas emissions from the Bocca Nuova became more intense and came in distinct puffs. Southeast Crater continued to emit heat; an incandescent fumarole remained high on its SE flank, and snow rapidly melted on the S and E flanks of the cone. During the early morning of 9 January 2001, significant seismicity affected the SE flank, shaking villages and towns including Catania. Tens of thousands of people were woken by the strongest event (M 3.5, MM V). The seismic crisis ended that same day after more than 50 shocks had been registered by the monitoring network. At least three of the earthquakes measured M 3.0 or more, and several were felt by the population of a large area between Nicolosi, Fornazzo, and Catania. Cracks opened in the walls of numerous buildings, but only one uninhabited building in Zafferana partially collapsed.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes


20 December-26 December 2000

Volcanic activity at Etna was low during December, with low gas emission at the SE Crater throughout the month and a few isolated Strombolian events at the Bocca Nuova crater in mid-December.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


29 November-5 December 2000

According to Italy's Volcanoes website, lava emission continued from both vents in the Bocca Nuova Crater with variable intensity. On 30 November observations revealed that after 3 months of low activity a small lava flow issued from the NNE fissure in the SE Crater. Lava extrusion was accompanied by strong degassing, but there was no explosive activity.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)


22 November-28 November 2000

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, Italian press sources reported that a new burst of seismic activity occurred near Etna's NNW flank on 19-21 November. The earthquakes were thought to be of tectonic origin. During the week mild eruptive activity continued at the Bocca Nuova crater as it has for several weeks, and incandescence was noted at the NE and SE Craters.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Stromboli On-Line


8 November-14 November 2000

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, during the week mild Strombolian activity continued at the Bocca Nuova Crater. The overall level of activity appeared to be generally lower than the previous week.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Stromboli On-Line


1 November-7 November 2000

According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, volcanic activity continued to fluctuate at Bocca Nuova Crater, varying from explosions to effusive lava flows as it has for several weeks. The Bocca Nuova Crater is Etna's southwestern-most crater and explosive activity was observed at its NW and E vents. In addition, incandescence was visible on the upper SE flank of the Southeast Crater cone. In related news, at 1826 on 5 November a M 3.6 earthquake occurred in eastern Sicily. The earthquake's epicenter was located near Monte Vetore, a prehistoric pyroclastic cone on Etna's S flank. In press reports Poseidon scientists interpreted the earthquake as being purely tectonic.

Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), La Sicilia, Stromboli On-Line


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Sep 3 2014 Feb 27 (?) Confirmed   Historical Observations New Southeast Crater (NSEC)
2010 Aug 25 2013 Apr 27 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Bocca Nuova, NE and SE Craters
2010 Apr 8 2010 Apr 8 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SE Crater
2008 May 13 2009 Jul 4 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations East base of NE Crater (3000-2650 m)
2007 Mar 19 2008 May (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Bocca Nuova, SE Crater and flank vents
2006 Jul 14 2006 Dec 15 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SE Crater & flank vents; NE Crater
2005 Dec 16 2005 Dec 22 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Bocca Nuova
2004 Sep 7 2005 Mar 8 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations SE Crater, SE flank (3000-2320 m)
2004 Feb 12 2004 Feb 14 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Central Crater
2003 Mar 8 ± 3 days 2003 Nov 9 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE Crater
2002 Oct 26 2003 Jan 28 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations NE Rift (3100-1900 m), S flank (2850-2600 m)
2001 Dec (?) 2002 Oct 30 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Central Crater, NE Crater
2001 Jul 17 2001 Aug 9 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations S to NE flanks (3100-2100 m)
1994 Jun 17 2001 Jul 17 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Central Crater, NE Crater, SE Crater
1993 Aug 3 1993 Oct 13 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Central Crater, NE Crater
1993 Feb 3 1993 Feb 3 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE Crater
1991 Dec 14 1993 Mar 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SE flank (3100-2800 m and 2400-2100 m)
1989 Dec 16 1992 May 23 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SE and NE Craters
1989 Sep 11 1989 Oct 9 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SE Crater, SE and NE flanks
1988 Oct 2 1989 Jun 30 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations SE Crater
1987 Mar 8 ± 8 days 1987 May 16 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE and SE Craters
1986 Oct 30 1987 Mar 1 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Valle del Bove (3050-2180 m)
1986 Mar 1986 Oct 31 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SE Crater
1985 Dec 19 1985 Dec 31 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations SE Crater and SE flank (2750-2420 m)
1985 Mar 8 1985 Jul 13 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations SE Crater, south flank (2620-2480 m)
1984 Jul 20 1986 Sep 24 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations NE Crater
1984 Apr 28 1984 Oct 18 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations SE Crater
1983 Mar 28 1983 Aug 6 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations South flank (2680-2250 m)
1981 Nov 26 1981 Nov 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE Crater
1981 Mar 17 1981 Mar 23 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NNW flank (2550-1140 m)
1981 Jan 26 ± 5 days 1981 Mar 5 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE Crater
1980 Jul 8 1980 Sep 26 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations NE Crater
1979 Jul 16 1980 Sep 1 ± 5 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SE Crater, SE, E and NE flanks
1979 Jul 3 1992 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1978 Apr 29 1978 Nov 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SE Crater, SE and ENE flanks (3050-1675 m)
1975 Feb 24 1975 Aug 29 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations North flank (2625 m)
1974 Sep 29 (?) 1978 Mar 29 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE Crater
1974 Jan 30 1974 Mar 29 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations West flank (1670 m and 1650 m)
1971 Sep 19 1979 Mar (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1971 Apr 5 1971 Jun 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SE flank (3050 m), E flank (2880-1800 m)
1968 Jan 7 1968 May 4 Confirmed 0 Historical Observations SE flank (2550 m)
1966 Jan 10 1971 Mar (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE Crater, Central Crater
1959 Oct 17 1964 Dec 31 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Central and NE Craters, NNE (3100 m)
1959 Mar 23 1959 Apr 25 ± 5 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Central Crater
1958 Nov 1958 Dec Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE Crater, Central Crater
1957 Aug 25 1958 May 3 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE Crater
1957 Feb 5 1957 May 7 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE Crater
1955 Apr 5 1956 Apr 7 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE Crater, Central Crater
[ 1953 Jul 30 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1951 Sep 21 1952 May 30 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE Crater
1950 Nov 25 1951 Dec 2 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations East flank (2820-2200 m)
1949 Dec 3 1950 Nov Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE Crater
1949 Dec 2 1949 Dec 5 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater and NW flank (2420-1900 m)
1947 Feb 24 1947 Mar 10 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE flank (3050-2150 m)
1947 Jan 29 1947 Feb 24 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations NE Crater, Central Crater
1946 Feb 1946 Oct Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE Crater
1945 Jun 5 ± 4 days 1945 Oct Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE Crater
1942 Jun 30 1942 Jul 1 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SW flank (2780-2240 m)
1941 Oct (?) 1944 Apr 26 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater, NE Crater
1935 Jul 7 1941 Jan 27 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Central Crater, NE Crater
1934 Jan 5 1934 Mar Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE Crater
1931 Jul 26 ± 5 days 1933 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater, NE Crater
1930 Nov 1 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE Crater
1929 Aug 2 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE Crater
1928 Nov 2 1928 Nov 20 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations East flank (3000-1200 m), NE Crater
1928 Jul 31 1928 Aug 20 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Central Crater
1926 Jan 2 1926 Jun Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE Crater
1923 Oct 9 1925 Feb Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Central Crater
1923 Jun 17 1923 Jul 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE flank (2500-1800 m)
1919 Mar 15 1923 Jul (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater, NE Crater
1918 Nov 30 (?) 1918 Dec 1 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations North flank (3110-2025 m)
1918 Mar 1918 Nov Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE Crater, Central Crater
1917 Jun 24 1917 Jul 5 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE Crater, Central Crater
1913 Nov 13 1917 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater, NE Crater
1912 Aug 4 1912 Aug Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Central Crater
1911 Sep 10 1911 Sep 22 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NE flank (2550-1625 m)
1911 Aug 1911 Sep 26 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater, NE Crater?
[ 1911 May 27 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1910 Dec 27 1911 Feb 17 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1910 Mar 23 1910 Apr 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South flank (2300-1900 m, Mt. Ricco)
1910 Feb 21 1910 Feb 21 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Central Crater
1908 May 20 1909 Sep 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1908 Apr 29 1908 May 1 ± 1 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SE flank (Valle del Bove 2800-2275 m)
1899 Nov 15 1907 Aug Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1899 Jul 19 1899 Aug 5 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Central Crater
1893 Apr 26 1898 Jun Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Central Crater
1892 Jul 9 1892 Dec 29 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South flank (2045-1800 m), Mt. Silvestri
1892 Jun 20 1892 Jul 8 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1891 Feb 20 1891 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1890 May 1890 Oct 17 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1888 Apr 13 (in or before) 1889 Aug Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1887 May 31 1887 Aug Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Central Crater
1886 May 18 1886 Jun 7 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations S flank (1525-1320 m), Mt. Gemmellaro
1884 1886 Apr Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Central Crater
1883 Mar 22 1883 Mar 24 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South flank (1200-950 m, Mt. Leone)
1879 May 26 1879 Jun 7 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SSW (2650-2300 m), NNE (2450-1690 m)
1878 Dec 23 1883 Mar 31 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1874 Aug 29 1874 Aug 31 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations North flank (2520-2110 m), Central Crater
1874 May Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1869 Sep 26 1869 Sep 26 Confirmed 0 Historical Observations East flank (W wall of Valle del Bove)
1868 Nov 26 (?) 1868 Dec 8 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Central Crater
1865 Jan 30 1865 Jun 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE flank (1865-1690 m, Mt. Sartorius)
1864 Aug 5 ± 4 days 1864 Sep 19 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1863 May 1 1863 Jul 25 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Central Crater
[ 1857 Sep 6 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1   Central Crater
1852 Aug 20 1853 May 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations East (Valle del Bove 1950-1700 m)
1843 Nov 17 1843 Dec 16 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations West flank (2400-1900 m), Central Crater
1842 Nov 18 1842 Dec 29 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater (south & east slopes)
1838 Jul 8 1839 Feb Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1832 Oct 31 1832 Nov 22 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SSE, W flanks (3000-1700? m), Mt. Nunziata
1820 Dec (?) 1833 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1819 May 27 1819 Aug 5 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Valle del Bove 2850-2375 m, Central Crater
[ 1816 Mar 6 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 0   Offshore from Aci-Castello
1811 Oct 27 1812 May (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations East (Valle del Bove 3000-1975 m)
1809 Mar 27 1809 Apr 9 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater, N & NE flanks (3000-1325 m)
1803 Jan 1 1819 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1802 Nov 15 1802 Nov 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater, E flank (1950-1700 m)
1793 (?) 1802 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Central Crater
1792 May 25 1793 May 26 ± 5 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, SE flank (2825-1500 m)
1792 Mar 1792 May 24 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater, west slope
1791 Feb 1791 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1787 Jun 4 ± 4 days 1787 Aug 11 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Central Crater
1781 Mar 1781 May 10 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1780 Apr 20 (?) 1780 Jul (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit, S & SSW flanks (2360-1850 m)
1776 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations Central Crater
[ 1770 May 28 ± 1 days ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Central Crater
1767 May 2 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations Central Crater
1766 Apr 27 1766 Nov 6 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South flank (2100-1950 m, M. Calcarazzi)
1764 1765 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations NW flank (3125-2500 m?)
1763 Jun 18 1763 Sep 10 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations South flank (2500-1925 m, Montagnola)
1763 Feb 6 1763 Mar 10 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations West flank (1725-1580 m, Mt. Nuovo)
1758 Nov 3 (?) 1759 Aug 1 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater, south flank (3000 m)
1755 Mar 9 1755 Mar 15 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations East flank (Valle del Bove, 1750 m)
1732 Dec 9 1765 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater
1727 Nov 22 1728 May 10 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater (SW slope)
[ 1723 Nov 22 ] [ 1724 May (?) ] Uncertain 2  
1702 Mar 8 1702 May 8 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations East flank (Valle del Bove, 2075-1875 m)
1693 Dec 1694 Nov (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Central Crater
[ 1693 Jan 9 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1689 Mar 14 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations East flank (Valle del Bove, 2300 m?)
1688 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations East slope of Central Crater
1682 Sep 1 1682 Oct (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations East flank (Valle del Bove, 2900 m)
1669 Mar 11 1669 Jul 11 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations S flank (950-625 m, Monti Rossi)
1654 Jan 1 1656 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Central Crater
1651 Jan 17 1653 Jul (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations West (2600-1770 m), east (1875-1815 m)
1646 Nov 20 1647 Jan 17 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NNE (2000 m, 1800 m), Mt. Nero
1643 Feb 20 1643 Feb 28 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations N flank (2100-1275 m), Monte Pomiciaro
[ 1640 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1634 Dec 19 (?) 1638 Apr 27 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations SE (2100-1950 m), Little Mt. Pecorara
[ 1633 Feb 21 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Central Crater
1614 Jul 1 (?) 1624 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NNE flank (2800-2400 m), Monti Deserti
1610 Feb 6 1610 Aug 15 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SW flank (2500-1700 m)
[ 1609 Jul ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1607 Jun 28 1608 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SW flank (2250-1950 m)?
1603 Jul 1610 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Central Crater (SW and S slope)
[ 1595 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1579 Sep 9 (?) 1580 (?) Confirmed   Historical Observations SE flank
[ 1578 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1566 Nov 1 (?) 1566 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE flank
[ 1554 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
[ 1550 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1541 Jul (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1540 Jul Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1537 Mar (?) 1537 Jul Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit, south flank (1800-1500 m)
1536 Mar 22 1536 Dec (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, S, N & W flanks (1400-2500 m)
[ 1535 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
[ 1533 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1493 (?) 1500 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1470 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1447 Sep 21 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1446 Sep 25 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations East (Valle del Bove, 1630 or 1825 m)
1444 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations South (N of Mt. Arso and 950 m)
1408 Nov 8 1408 Nov 25 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, south flank (M. Piniteddu)
1381 Aug 6 (?) (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SSE (370 m), Mts. Pomiciari, Arsi?
1350 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1334 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1333 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1329 Jun 28 1329 Aug 4 ± 4 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SE flank
[ 1321 ] [ 1328 ] Discredited    
1284 1285 Jan (?) Confirmed   Historical Observations East flank (Valle del Bove)
1250 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1224 Aug (?) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations SE flank
[ 1222 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1194 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1175 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
[ 1169 Feb 4 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1164 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1160 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1157 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1063 ± 1 years Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations WSW flank (1500 m) ?
[ 1044 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1004 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0911 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0859 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0814 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0812 (?) ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     South flank (1200 m, S of Mt. Sona)
[ 0644 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0604 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
[ 0560 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
[ 0500 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
0417 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
[ 0410 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
[ 0400 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
0252 Feb 1 0252 Feb 9 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations South flank (Monpeloso)
[ 0165 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
0100 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology FV tephra
[ 0080 (?) ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0072 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
[ 0050 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
0039 ± 1 years Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
0010 (?) 0020 (?) Confirmed   Historical Observations
[ 0010 BCE (?) ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
0032 Dec 31 BCE ± 365 days Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
0036 Jul 15 BCE ± 45 days 0035 BCE Confirmed   Historical Observations East side ?
0044 Mar BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations FF tephra layer
0049 BCE Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations West flank and summit ?
[ 0056 BCE ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0061 BCE ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
0122 BCE Unknown Confirmed 5 Historical Observations S flank, summit (Cratere del Piano caldera)
0126 Jun BCE (in or before) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
0135 BCE Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
0141 Dec 31 BCE ± 365 days Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
[ 0350 BCE (?) ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
0396 Apr 15 BCE (?) ± 45 days Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations SE flank (700 m, Monte Gorna)
0425 Mar 15 BCE ± 15 days 0424 BCE (?) Confirmed   Historical Observations South flank (Monte Arso)
0479 Aug BCE (?) 0475 BCE (?) Confirmed   Historical Observations South flank ?
[ 0565 BCE ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
0695 BCE ± 2 years Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations South ?, Mt. Mompilieri ?
[ 0735 BCE ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1050 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) South flank (Monte Salto del Cane)
1420 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) FL tephra layer
[ 1470 BCE ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1500 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Historical Observations
1980 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) FS tephra
2330 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
3050 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
3390 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Tufo varicolori tephra
3510 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
4150 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
5150 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
6190 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Alparone S, Andronico D, Giammanco S, Lodato L, 2004. A multidisciplinary approach to detect active pathways for magma migration and eruption at Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) before the 2001 and 2002-2003 eruptions. J Volc Geotherm Res, 136: 121-140.

Andronico D, Branca S, Calvari S, Burton M, Caltabiano T, Corsaro R A, Del Carlo P, Garfi G, Lodato L, Miraglia L, Mure F, Neri M, Pecora E, Pompilio M, Salerno G, Spampinato L, 2005. A multi-disciplinary study of the 2002-03 Etna eruption: insights into a complex plumbing system. Bull Volc, 67: 314-330.

Andronico D, Cristaldi A, Scollo S, 2008. The 4-5 September 2007 lava fountain at South-East Crater of Mt Etna, Italy. J Volc Geotherm Res, 173: 325-328.

Applegarth L J, Pinkerton H, James M R, Calvari S, 2010. Morphological complexities and hazards during the emplacement of the channel-fed 'a'a lava flow fields: a study of the 2001 lower flow field on Etna. Bull Volc, 172: 641-656.

Barberi F, Brondi F, Carapezza M L, Cavarra L, Murgia C, 2003. Earthen barriers to control lava flows in the 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna. J Volc Geotherm Res, 123: 231-243.

Barbieri M, Cristofolini R, Delitala M C, Fornaseri M, Romano R, Taddeucci A, Tolomeo L, 1993. Geochemical and Sr-isotope data on historic lavas of Mount Etna. J Volc Geotherm Res, 56: 57-69.

Behncke B, 2002. Italy's volcanoes - the cradle of volcanology. http://boris.vulcanoetna.it/ (accessed February 11, 2002).

Behncke B, Calvari S, Giammanco S, Neri M, Pinkerton H, 2008. Pyroclastic density currents resulting from the interaction of basaltic magma with hydrothermally altered rock: an example from the 2006 summit eruption of Mount Etna, Italy. Bull Volc, 70: 1249-1268.

Behncke B, Neri M, 2003. The July-August 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna (Sicily). Bull Volc, 65: 461-476.

Behncke B, Neri M, Carniel R, 2003. An exceptional case of endogenous lava dome growth spawning pyroclastic avalanches: the 1999 Bocca Nuova eruption of Mt. Etna (Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 124: 115-128.

Behncke B, Neri M, Nagay A, 2005. Lava flow hazard at Mount Etna (Italy): new data from a GIS-based study. In: Manga M, Ventura G (eds) Kinematics and dynamics of lava flows, {Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap}, 396: 189-208.

Behncke B, Neri M, Pecora E, Zanon V, 2006. The exceptional activity and growth of the Southeast Crater, Mount Etna (Italy), between 1996 and 2001. Bull Volc, 69: 149-173.

Behncke B, Pshenichny C A, 2009. Modeling unusual behavior of Mt. Etna, Italy, by means of event bush. J Volc Geotherm Res, 185: 157-171.

Billi A, Acocella V, Funiciello R, Giordano G, Lanzafame G, Neri M, 2003. Mechanisms for ground-surface fracturing and incipient slope failure associated with the 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna, Italy: analysis of ephemeral field data. J Volc Geotherm Res, 122: 281-294.

Branca S, Del Carlo P, 2005. Types of eruptions of Etna volcano AD 1670-2003: implications of short-term eruptive activity. Bull Volc, 67: 732-742.

Branca S, Del Carlo P, Lo Castro M D, De Beni E, Wijbrans J, 2009. The occurrence of Mt Barca flank eruption in the evolution of the NW periphery of Etna volcano (Italy). (Bull Volc, 71: 79-94.

Budetta G, Carbone D, 1998. Temporal variations in gravity at Mt. Etna (Italy) associated with the 1989 and 1991 eruptions. Bull Volc, 59: 311-326.

Burton M R, Neri M, Andronico D, Branca S, Caltabiano T, Calvari S, Cosaro R A, Del Carlo P, Lanzafame G, Lodato L, Miraglia L, Salerno G, Spampinato L, 2005. Etna 2004-2005: an archetype for geodynamically-controlled effusive eruptions. Geophys Res Lett, 32: L09303, doi:10.1029/2005GL022527.2005.

Calanchi N, Dinelli E, Gasparotto G, Lucchini F, 1996. Etnean tephra layer in Albano Lake and Adriatic Sea cores: new findings of Y1-layer in the central Mediterranean area. Acta Vulc, 8: 7-13.

Calvari S, Groppelli G, 1996. Relevance of the Chiancone volcaniclastic deposit in the recent history of Etna volcano (Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 72: 239-258.

Calvari S, Groppelli G, Pasquare G, 1994. Preliminary geological data on the south-western wall of the Valle del Bove, Mt. Etna, Sicily. Acta Vulc, 5: 15-30.

Calvari S, Pinkerton H, 2004. Birth, growth and morphologic evolution of the 'Laghetto' cinder cone during the 2001 Etna eruption. J Volc Geotherm Res, 132: 225-239.

Calvari S, Tanner L H, Groppelli G, 1998. Debris-avalanche deposits of the Milo Lahar sequence and the opening of the Valle del Bove on Etna volcano (Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 87: 193-209.

Clover F M, 1983. Olympiodorus of Thebes and the Historia Augusta. Antiquitas Beitrage Hist-Augusta-Forschung, 15: 127-156.

Clover F M, 1981. . (pers. comm.).

Coltelli M, Del Carlo P, Vezzoli L, 2000. Stratigraphic constraints for explosive activity in the past 100 ka at Etna volcano, Italy. Internatl J Earth Sci, 89: 665-677.

Coltelli M, Garduno V H, Neri M, Pasquare G, Pompilio M, 1994. Geology of the northern wall of Valle del Bove, Mt. Etna (Sicily). Acta Vulc, 5: 55-68.

Corazzato C, Tibaldi A, 2006. Fracture control on type, morphology and distribution of parasitic volcanic cones: an example from Mt. Etna, Italy. J Volc Geotherm Res, 158: 177-194.

Corsaro R A, Cristofolini R, 1996. Origin and differentiation of recent basaltic magmas from Mount Etna. Mineral Petr, 57: 1-21.

Corsaro R A, Cristofolini R, Patane L, 1996. The 1669 eruption at Mount Etna: chronology, petrology and geochemistry, with inferences on the magma sources and ascent mechanisms. Bull Volc, 58: 348-358.

Corsaro R A, Pompilio M, 2004. Magma dynamics in the shallow plumbing system of Mt. Etna as recorded by compositional variations in the volcanics of recent summit activity (1995-1999). J Volc Geotherm Res, 137: 55-71.

Crisci G M, Di Gregorio S, Rongo R, Scarpelli M, Spataro W, Calvari S, 2003. Revisiting the 1669 Etnean eruptive crisis using a cellular automata model and implications for volcanic hazards in the Catania area. J Volc Geotherm Res, 123: 211-230.

Del Carlo P, Branca S, 1998. Tephrostratigraphic dating of the pre-1300 AD SE flank eruptions of Mt Etna. Acta Vulc, 10: 33-37.

Ferlito C, Coltorti M, Cristofolini R, Giacomoni P P, 2009. The contemporaneous emission of low-K and high-K trachybasalts and the role of the NE Rift during the 2002 eruptive event, Mt. Etna, Italy. Bull Volc, 71: 575-587.

Ferlito C, Viccaro M, Nicotra E, Cristofolini R, 2010. Relationship between the flank sliding of the South East Crater (Mt. Etna, Italy) and the paroxysmal event of November 16, 2006. Bull Volc, 72: 1179-1190.

Fornaciai A, Behncke B, Favalli M, Neri M, Tarquini S, Boschi E, 2010. Detecting short-term evolution of Etnean scoria cones: a LIDAR-based approach. Bull Volc, 72: 1209-1222.

Garduno V H, Neri M, Pasquare G, Borgia A, Tibaldi A, 1997. Geology of the NE-Rift of Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy). Acta Vulc, 9: 91-100.

Gillot P-Y, Kieffer G, Romano R, 1994. The evolution of Mount Etna in the light of potassium-argon dating. Acta Vulc, 5: 81-87.

Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p.

Gresta S, Ripepe M, Marchetti E, D'Amico S, Coltelli M, Harris A J L, Privitera E, 2004. Seismoacoutstic measurements during the July-August 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna volcano, Italy. J Volc Geotherm Res, 137: 219-230.

Guest J E, 1982. Styles of eruptions and flow morphology on Mt. Etna. Mem Soc Geol Italiana, 23: 49-67.

Guidoboni E, Ciuccarelli C, 2008. First historical evidence of a significant Mt. Etna eruption in 1224. J Volc Geotherm Res, 178: 693-700.

Houghton B F, Wilson C J N, Del Carlo P, Coltelli M, Sable J E, Carey R, 2004. The influence of conduit processes on changes in style of basaltic Plinian eruptions: Tarawera 1886 and Etna 122 BC. J Volc Geotherm Res, 137: 1-14.

Imbo G, 1965. Italy. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 18: 1-72.

Lautze N C, Harris A J L, Bailey J E, Ripepe M, Calvari S, Dehn J, Rowland S K, Evans-Jones K, 2004. Pulsed lava effusion at Mount Etna during 2001. J Volc Geotherm Res, 137: 231-246.

Murray J B, Stevens N F, 2000. New formulae for estimating lava flow volumes at Mt. Etna volcano, Sicily. Bull Volc, 61: 515-526.

Neri M, Acocella V, 2006. The 2004-2005 Etna eruption: implications for flank deformation and structural behavior of the volcano. J Volc Geotherm Res, 158: 195-206.

Neri M, Acocella V, Behncke B, 2004. The role of the Pernicana Fault System in the spreading of Mt. Etna (Italy) during the 2002-2003 eruption. Bull Volc, 66: 417-430.

Rodwell G F, 1878. Etna: A History of the Mountain and of its Eruptions. London: C Kegan Paul & Co, 146 p.

Romano R (ed), 1982. Mount Etna volcano. Mem Soc Geol Italiana, 23: 1-205.

Romano R, Sturiale C, Lentini F, 1979. Geological Map of Mount Etna. CNR Istit Internatl Vulc, Catania, 1:50,000 geol map.

Rymer H, Cassidy J, Locke C A, Murray J B, 1995. Magma movements in Etna volcano associated with the major 1991-93 lava eruption: evidence from gravity and deformation. Bull Volc, 57: 451-461.

Spampinato L, Calvari S, Oppenheimer C, Lodato L, 2008. Shallow magma transport for the 2002-3 Mt. Etna eruption inferred from thermal infrared surveys. J Volc Geotherm Res, 177: 301-312.

Stevens N F, Murray J B, Wadge G, 1997. The volume and shape of the 1991-1993 lava flow field of Mount Etna, Italy. Bull Volc, 58: 449-454.

Stothers R B, Rampino M R, 1983. Volcanic eruptions in the Mediterranean before AD 630 from written and archaeological sources. J Geophys Res, 88: 6357-6371.

Taddeucci J, Pompilio M, Scarlato P, 2004. Conduit processes during the July-August 2001 explosive activity of Mt. Etna (Italy): inferences from glass chemistry and crystal size distribution of ash particles. J Volc Geotherm Res, 137: 33-54.

Tanguy J C, 1981. Les eruptions historiques de l'Etna: chronologie et localisation. Bull Volc, 44: 585-640.

Tanguy J C, Condomines M, Le Goff M, Chillemi V, La Delfa S, Patane G, 2007. Mount Etna eruptions of the last 2,750 years: revised chronology and location through archeomagnetic and 226Ra-230Th dating. Bull Volc, 70: 55-83.

Tonarini S, Armienti P, D'Orazio M, Innocenti F, Pompilo M, Petrini R, 1995. Geochemical and isotopic monitoring of Mt. Etna 1989-1993 eruptive activity: bearing on the shallow feeding system. J Volc Geotherm Res, 64: 95-115.

Uchrin G, 1990. Olympiodorus's eruption of Mount Etna. Eos, Trans Amer Geophys Union, 71: 329 & 334.

Wadge G, 1977. The storage and release of magma on Mount Etna. J Volc Geotherm Res, 2: 361-384.

Wright R, Flynn L P, Harris A J L, 2001. Evolution of lava flow-fields at Mount Etna, 27-28 October 1999, observed by Landsat 7 ETM+. Bull Volc, 63: 1-7.

Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.