Vesuvius

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 40.821°N
  • 14.426°E

  • 1281 m
    4202 ft

  • 211020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

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Most Recent Bulletin Report: October 1999 (BGVN 24:10)


9 October seismic swarm includes an M ~ 3.5 event, the largest in 50 years

At the beginning of October a small cluster of seismic events was recorded by the permanent seismic network of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (figure 4). The most energetic event of the sequence occurred at 0741 on 9 October, with a duration magnitude (MD) of 3.6 and a Wood Anderson equivalent magnitude (MWA) of 3.4. This event was located in the crater area at a depth of about 3 km below sea level, with a preliminary stress-drop of 164 bar and a preliminary moment magnitude of 3.3. According to its MD value, this event was the most energetic of the last 50 years. Its fault plane solution showed a strike slip mechanism. All the events in this sequence were located below the crater area within the first 6 km of the upper crust, typical of seismicity at Vesuvius in recent years.

Figure 4. Seismic activity at Vesuvius during 1 January-17 November 1999, showing the monthly number of events (histogram) and strain release (line). Courtesy of the Osservatorio Vesuviano.

During the swarm no changes were observed in the temperature or the composition of the fumaroles, in the CO2 flux from soil, or in ground deformation. Both the temperature and the level of the water-table sampled around the volcano appeared unchanged. As of mid-November seismicity seems to have returned to normal low background levels (both in terms of energy and in number of events) that have characterized Vesuvius for several years.

Information Contacts: Lucia Civetta (civetta@osve.unina.it), Edoardo Del Pezzo (delpezzo@osve.unina.it), Francesca Bianco (bianco@osve.unina.it), Giuseppe Vilardo (vilardo@osve.unina.it), and Mario Castellano (castellano@osve.unina.it), Osservatorio Vesuviano, Via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Napoli, Italy (URL: http://www.voxneapolis.it/osservatorio.vesuviano/).

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Vesuvius.

Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

06/1996 (BGVN 21:06) Seismicity during 1995-96 is the highest in the past 50 years

08/1996 (BGVN 21:08) Ongoing sub-crater seismic activity

04/1997 (BGVN 22:04) Low seismicity prevails after March-May 1996 earthquake swarm

10/1999 (BGVN 24:10) 9 October seismic swarm includes an M ~ 3.5 event, the largest in 50 years




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


06/1996 (BGVN 21:06) Seismicity during 1995-96 is the highest in the past 50 years

The Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex is a central composite volcano formed by an older stratovolcano (Monte Somma) with a summit caldera partially filled by the composite cone of Vesuvius. The most noted eruption, in 79 A.D., destroyed the ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Since the explosive sub-Plinian eruption of 1631, Vesuvius has erupted with both Strombolian and mixed effusive-explosive styles. For the past three centuries the volcanic activity has mainly focused inside the Somma caldera but occasionally lava issued outside it (i.e., 1760 eruption). The last cycle of activity ended with the 1944 eruption. Since then, the volcano has been characterized by moderate seismicity and intra-crater fumarolic activity.

The Osservatorio Vesuviano maintains an array of short-period seismographs (eight three-component and nine vertical-component instruments). Seismicity was monitored during 1995 and March-April 1996. The 1995-96 period was the most active of the past fifty years. Several hundred microearthqukes (M < 3.2) were recorded during 1995, many from sources within the volcanic edifice above sea level. An increase in strain release and in frequency of earthquakes was observed from August to October 1995. During this period 217 events were recorded. Three of these earthquakes had M > 3.0 and were felt by the local population (~600,000 people): the first event (M 3.1, focal depth 3.1 km) occurred on 2 August; the second (M 3.2, focal depth 4.2 km) on 16 September, and the third (M 3.1, focal depth 3.3 km) on 24 September.

During November 1995-February 1996 the seismicity decreased to <10 events/month, and the strongest earthquake was M 2.5. During March-April 1996, however, 296 earthquakes were recorded. A M 3.4 event at 2 km depth was the strongest recorded during the past fifty years. Seismic activity at Vesuvius decreased again after this event.

Hypocenter locations for the past two years have clustered in a small volume below the crater area, no deeper than 6 km below sea level (figure 1). Focal mechanisms of relevant events suggested that the cause of seismicity was crustal rupture. Harmonic tremor and monochromatic low-frequency events were not observed. No changes in ground deformation or fumarolic gas compositions were reported.

Figure 1. Locations of seismic events at Vesuvius (1995-May 1996). All events have at least five P and one S picks (RMS <= 0.15 sec). Bars in cross-sections represent the errors on focal depths. Circle dimensions are proportional to event magnitudes.

A Reuters news story noted that a geophysical experiment is planned at the end of June to obtain a tomographic image of the volcano. The report said that the experiment, a joint-venture of Swiss, French, and Italian scientists, includes a series of controlled explosions at 14 boreholes on the volcano's slopes and as far away as the Sorrento peninsula. The explosions will be monitored by a network of 250 seismic stations. In addition, a marine seismic prospecting survey will be carried out in the Bay of Naples to investigate the volcano's submarine flanks.

Information Contacts: Lucia Civetta, Francesca Bianco, Giuseppe Vilardo, and Mario Castellano, Osservatorio Vesuviano, Via Manzoni 249, 80123 Napoli, Italy (Email: bianco@osve.unina.it; vilardo@osve.unina.it; mario@osve.unina.it); Paul Holmes, Reuters News Service.

08/1996 (BGVN 21:08) Ongoing sub-crater seismic activity

Non-eruptive activity at the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex is characterized by low seismicity both in terms of energy and numbers of events; very few episodes of intense seismicity occurred during the last twenty years.

In the last three years, however, hundreds of earthquakes have been detected with magnitudes ranging from -0.4 up to 3.4. The plot of monthly seismic events (figure 2) shows the usual fluctuating pattern observed at Vesuvius. The energy release distribution (figure 2) has a sharp peak coinciding with the 1995-96 earthquakes; the strain release curve also recorded two clear steps at these times.

Figure 2. Monthly seismicity at Vesuvius during 1 Oct 1994 - 31 Aug 1996. The lower part of the figure shows the energy release histogram and the strain release curve. Courtesy of the Osservatorio Vesuviano.

After the seismic crisis of March-April 1996 (BGVN 21:06), seismic activity decreased. During May-August 1996, the permanent seismic network of the Osservatorio Vesuviano recorded 266 microearthquakes, the strongest one had M 2.7. The events belonging to this sequence affected an extremely reduced volume below the crater area at shallow depth, with hypocenters rarely exceeding 6 kilometers below the sea. No changes in ground deformation or fumarolic gas composition were reported in the last field measurements.

Information Contacts: Lucia Civetta, Francesca Bianco, Giuseppe Vilardo, and Mario Castellano, Osservatorio Vesuviano, Via Manzoni 249, 80123 Napoli, Italy (Email: bianco@osve.unina.it; vilardo@osve.unina.it; mario@osve.unina.it).

04/1997 (BGVN 22:04) Low seismicity prevails after March-May 1996 earthquake swarm

During late 1996 through early 1997 Somma-Vesuvius remained volcanically quiet and characterized by low seismicity both in terms of energy and number of events.

A few episodes of moderate seismic activity have occurred in the last twenty years. The crisis of March-May 1996, characterized by an M 3.4 event (BGVN 21:08) was followed by a significant decrease of the seismic activity (figure 3). After the crisis, during June 1996-April 1997, 350 microearthquakes (maximum magnitude, 2.7) were recorded at the permanent seismic network of the Osservatorio Vesuviano. As has been typical in the past, foci appeared in a small volume below the crater area, rarely at depths below 6 km.

Figure 3. Seismic activity at Vesuvius during the period 1 January 1996-30 April 1997, showing daily events (top), energy (histogram, bottom), and strain release (line, bottom). Courtesy of the Osservatorio Vesuviano.

During January 1996-April 1997 the monthly temporal distribution of both earthquakes and their energy fluctuated, as had been the case in the past. The distribution of the cumulative strain release (figure 3) had its regular trend, disturbed only by the seismic crisis of March-May 1996. Both ground deformation and fumarolic gas composition data remained stable.

Information Contacts: Lucia Civetta, Francesca Bianco, Giuseppe Vilardo, and Mario Castellano, Osservatorio Vesuviano, Via Manzoni 249, 80123 Napoli, Italy (Email: civetta@osve.unina.it; bianco@osve.unina.it; vilardo@osve.unina.it; mario@osve.unina.it).

10/1999 (BGVN 24:10) 9 October seismic swarm includes an M ~ 3.5 event, the largest in 50 years

At the beginning of October a small cluster of seismic events was recorded by the permanent seismic network of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (figure 4). The most energetic event of the sequence occurred at 0741 on 9 October, with a duration magnitude (MD) of 3.6 and a Wood Anderson equivalent magnitude (MWA) of 3.4. This event was located in the crater area at a depth of about 3 km below sea level, with a preliminary stress-drop of 164 bar and a preliminary moment magnitude of 3.3. According to its MD value, this event was the most energetic of the last 50 years. Its fault plane solution showed a strike slip mechanism. All the events in this sequence were located below the crater area within the first 6 km of the upper crust, typical of seismicity at Vesuvius in recent years.

Figure 4. Seismic activity at Vesuvius during 1 January-17 November 1999, showing the monthly number of events (histogram) and strain release (line). Courtesy of the Osservatorio Vesuviano.

During the swarm no changes were observed in the temperature or the composition of the fumaroles, in the CO2 flux from soil, or in ground deformation. Both the temperature and the level of the water-table sampled around the volcano appeared unchanged. As of mid-November seismicity seems to have returned to normal low background levels (both in terms of energy and in number of events) that have characterized Vesuvius for several years.

Information Contacts: Lucia Civetta (civetta@osve.unina.it), Edoardo Del Pezzo (delpezzo@osve.unina.it), Francesca Bianco (bianco@osve.unina.it), Giuseppe Vilardo (vilardo@osve.unina.it), and Mario Castellano (castellano@osve.unina.it), Osservatorio Vesuviano, Via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Napoli, Italy (URL: http://www.voxneapolis.it/osservatorio.vesuviano/).

One of the world's most noted volcanoes, Vesuvius (Vesuvio) forms a dramatic backdrop to the Bay of Naples. The historically active cone of Vesuvius was constructed within a large caldera of the ancestral Monte Somma volcano, thought to have formed incrementally beginning about 17,000 years ago. The Monte Somma caldera wall has channeled lava flows and pyroclastic flows primarily to the south and west. Eight major explosive eruptions have taken place in the last 17,000 years, often accompanied by large pyroclastic flows and surges, such as during the well-known 79 CE Pompeii eruption. Intermittent eruptions since 79 CE were followed by a period of frequent long-term explosive and effusive eruptions beginning in 1631 and lasting until 1944. The 1631 eruption was the largest since 79 CE and produced devastating pyroclastic flows that reached as far as the coast and caused great destruction. Many towns are located on the volcano's flanks, and several million people live within areas potentially affected by eruptions of Vesuvius.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1913 Jul 5 1944 Apr 4 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and upper flanks
1875 Dec 18 1906 Apr 22 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Summit and upper flanks
[ 1874 Jan ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
1870 Dec 1872 Apr 30 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and upper NW and south flanks
1864 Feb 10 1868 Nov 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and upper SE flank
1855 Dec 19 1861 Dec 31 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and SW flank (300-225 m)
1854 Dec 14 1855 May 27 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and upper N flank
1841 Sep 20 1850 Feb 16 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit, upper N and E flanks
1835 Jan 1839 Jan 3 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, upper east and west flanks
1824 Jul 2 1834 Sep 2 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, upper E and S flanks
1796 Jan 1822 Nov 16 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and upper flanks
1783 Aug 18 1794 Jul 5 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and SW flank (550-300 m)
1770 Feb 15 1779 Oct 4 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, N, NE, SE and E flanks
1764 1767 Oct 27 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, upper SW, SE, and NNW flanks
1744 Nov (?) 1761 Jan 6 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, upper SE, E and lower S flanks
1742 1743 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1732 Dec 25 1737 Jun 4 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and SW flank
1724 Sep 4 1730 Apr 1 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1708 Aug 14 1723 Jul 8 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, upper east and south flanks
1701 Jul 1 1707 Aug 22 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and SW flank
1697 Sep 15 1698 Jul Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1696 Jul 31 1696 Aug 14 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1685 Oct 3 1694 Apr 29 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1682 Aug 12 1682 Aug 22 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1654 Feb 25 1680 Mar 28 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1637 Jul 1 1652 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1631 Dec 16 1632 Jan 31 (?) Confirmed 5 Historical Observations Summit, SW and S flanks
1570 (in or before) 1572 ± 1 years Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1500 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1347 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
[ 1270 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1150 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1139 Jun 1 1139 Jun 9 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 1073 ± 5 years ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 3  
[ 1049 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
1037 Jan 27 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and south flank (I Monticelli?)
1006 Dec 31 ± 365 days Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
0999 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and south flank (Fossamonaca)
0991 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
0968 Dec 1 ± 30 days Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
0900 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Magnetism South and west (Tironi) flanks
0860 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Magnetism South flank
0787 Oct 15 ± 45 days 0788 Jan 15 ± 45 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and south flank
0685 Feb 0685 Mar Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
0536 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
0512 Jul 8 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
[ 0505 Nov 9 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
0472 Nov 5 0472 Nov 6 (?) Confirmed 5 Historical Observations
0379 0395 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 0303 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
0222 0235 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
0203 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
0172 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
0079 Oct 24 (?) 0079 Oct 28 ± 1 days Confirmed 5 Historical Observations
0217 BCE 0216 BCE Confirmed 3 Historical Observations AP6 tephra
0600 BCE (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 3 Anthropology
0880 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) AP3 tephra
1430 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) AP2 tephra
1550 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) AP1 tephra
2420 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected)
6940 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Mercato Pumice

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Vesuve | Somma-Vesuviana | Vesbius | Vesuvio

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Bocca del Viulo Vent
Camaldoli della Torre Cone
Fossamonaca Vent
Gran Cono Stratovolcano 1281 m
I Monticelli Vent
Masseria Bosco del Monaco Vent
Somma, Monte Stratovolcano 1132 m
Tironi Vent

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Colle Margherita Dome 959 m
Colle Umberto Dome 873 m
This engraving of the 1631 eruption of Vesuvius shows a vertical eruption column and pyroclastic flows sweeping down the flanks of the volcano to the sea. This is the earliest known depiction of pyroclastic flows, which were responsible for the fatalities at Pompei and Herculaneum during the 79 AD eruption. The 1631 eruption was one of the largest at Vesuvius in historical time and began the modern period of frequent, long-duration eruptions of Vesuvius.

Engraving by G. Battista Passaro (from the collection of Maurice and Katia Krafft, published in Simkin and Siebert, 1994).
An ash-rich eruption column rises above the summit of Vesuvius in 1944, near the end of a long-duration eruption that began in 1913. The 1944 eruption of Vesuvius included the emission of voluminous lava flows and vigorous explosions that left a 300-m-deep crater at the summit. It marked the end of the latest eruptive cycle of Vesuvius, which had begun in 1913 with long-duration lava effusion and strombolian eruptions. The paroxysmal phase began on March 18, 1944, and ended on April 4.

Photo by U.S. Navy, 1944.
This early photograph of Vesuvius looking east across the Bay of Naples depicts the major eruption of April 1872. A vigorous plinian eruption column rises from the summit crater, and ash columns also rise from a NW-flank fissure that fed a lava flow that traveled far down the west flank, overrunning several villages. Steam also rises above another lava flow below and to the right of the summit. This eruption began with lava effusion in December 1870.

Photo courtesty of Roberto Scandone (University of Rome).
The bedded layers at the right, near the town of Torre de Greco on the south flank of Vesuvius, are pyroclastic-surge deposits from the Avellino eruption, dated about 3700 years ago. This eruption, one of eight major explosive eruptions since formation of the Monte Somma caldera, produced 2.9 cu km of airfall tephra. Pyroclastic surges (1 cu km) swept all sides of the volcano and traveled as far as 22 km to the NW, covering an area now overlain by much of the city of Naples.

Photo by Roberto Scandone (University of Rome).
The dark-colored lava flow filling the caldera moat between the cone of Vesuvius and the caldera wall of Monte Somma in the background was erupted in 1944, near the end of the eruptive cycle that began in 1913.

Photo by Roberto Scandone, 1989 (University of Rome).
The upper crater rim of Vesuvius is capped by thick tephra deposits from its last eruption in 1944. The bedded tephra layers overlie a light-colored layer at the right, a lava flow that had been erupted earlier during the 1944 eruption. The steep wall beneath the 1944 lava flow is cut through pre-1944 lava flows.

Photo by Roberto Scandone, 1989 (University of Rome).
Mount Vesuvius rises above an excavated stadium in the buried city of Pompeii. The 79 AD eruption began on August 24 with phreatomagmatic explosions that produced widespread ashfall. Many residents of Pompei and other towns had evacuated prior to the onset of devastating pyroclastic flows the following day that swept over broad areas as far as 30 km from the volcano and caused thousands of fatalities.

Photo by Dan Dzurisin (U.S. Geological Survey), 1983.
Mount Vesuvius provides a backdrop to the city of Naples. The modern cone of Vesuvius is flanked on the left by Monte Somma, the rim of a caldera that formed about 17,000 years ago. Eight major explosive eruptions have occurred since, including the 79 AD eruption that destroyed Pompeii and other towns. A period of frequent, long-duration eruptions began in 1631. The latest eruption of Vesuvius was in 1944.

Photo by Dan Dzurisin, 1983 (U.S. Geological Survey).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Alfano G B, Friedlander I, 1929. La Storia del Vesuvio. Naples: K Holm, 71 p, 107 plates.

Andronico D, Cioni R, 2002. Contrasting styles of Mount Vesuvius activity in the period between the Avellino and Pompeii plinian eruptions, and some implications for assessment of future hazards. Bull Volc, 64: 372-391.

Arrighi S, Principe C, Rosi M, 2001. Violent strombolian and subplinian eruptions at Vesuvius during post-1631 activity. Bull Volc, 63: 126-150.

Bertagnini A, Landi P, Rosi M, Vigliargio A, 1998. The Pomici de Base plinian eruption of Somma-Vesuvius. J Volc Geotherm Res, 83: 219-239.

Bruno P P G, Rapolla A, 1999. Study of the sub-surface structure of Somma-Vesuvius (Italy) by seismic reflection data. J Volc Geotherm Res, 92: 373-387.

Bullard F M, 1976. Volcanoes of the Earth. Austin: Univ Texas Press, 579 p.

Cioni R, Santacroce R, Sbrana A, 1999. Pyroclastic deposits as a guide for reconstructing the multi-stage evolution of the Somma-Vesuvius caldera. Bull Volc, 61: 207-222.

Cioni R, Sulpizo R, Garruccio N, 2003. Variability of the eruption dynamics during a subplinian event: the Greenish Pumice eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 124: 89-114.

Civetta L, Santacroce R, 1991. Steady state magma supply in the last 3400 years of Vesuvius activity. Acta Vulc, 2: 147-159.

Delibrias G, Di Paola G M, Rosi M, Santacroce R, 1979. La storia eruttiva del complesso vulcanico Somma Vesuvio ricostruita dalle successioni piroclastiche del Monte Somma. Rendiconti Soc Italiana Min Petr, 35: 411-438.

Di Vito M A, Sulpizio R, Zanchetta G, D'Orazio M, 2008. The late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposits of the Campanian Plain: new insights into the explosive activity of Neapolitan volcanoes. J Volc Geotherm Res, 177: 19-48.

Fulignati P, Marinelli P, Metrich N, Santacroce R, Sbrana A, 2004. Towards a reconstruction of the magmatic feeding system of the 1944 eruption of Mt Vesuvius. J Volc Geotherm Res, 133: 13-22.

Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p.

Gurioli L, Houghton B R, Cashman K V, Cioni R, 2005. Complex changes in eruptive dynamics during the 79 AD eruption of Vesuvius. Bull Volc, 67: 144-159.

Gurioli L, Sulpizio R, Cioni R, Sbrana A, Santacroce R, Luperini W, Andronico D, 2010. Pyroclastic flow hazard assessment at Somma-Vesuvius based on the geological record . Bull Volc, 72: 1021-1038.

Imbo G, 1965. Italy. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 18: 1-72.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Lirer L, Munno R, Postiglione I, Vinci A, Vitelli L, 1997. The A.D. 79 eruption as a future explosive scenario in the Vesuvian area: evaluation of associated risk. Bull Volc, 59: 112-124.

Lirer L, Petrosino P, Alberico I, Postiglione I, 2001. Long-term volcanic hazard forecasts based on Somma-Vesuvio past eruptive activity. Bull Volc, 63: 45-60.

Marianelli P, Metrich N, Sbrana A, 1999. Shallow and deep reservoirs involved in magma supply of the 1944 eruption of Vesuvius. Bull Volc, 61: 48-63.

Mastrolorenzo G, Petrone P, Pappalardo L, Sheridan M F, 2006. The Avellino 3780-yr-B.P. catastrophe as a worst-case scenario for a future eruption at Vesuvius. Proc Nat Acad Sci, 103: 4366-4370.

Milia A, Mirabile L, Torrente M M, Dvorak J J, 1998. Volcanism offshore of Vesuvius volcano in Naples Bay. Bull Volc, 59: 404-413.

Peccerillo A, 2005. Plio-Quaternary Volcanism in Italy. Berlin: Springer, 365 p.

Perrotta A, Scarpati C, Luongo G, Aoyagi M, 2006. Burial of Emperor Augustus' villa at Somma Vesuviana (Italy) by post-79 AD Vesuvius eruptions and reworked (lahars and stream flow) deposits. J Volc Geotherm Res, 158: 445-466.

Principe C, Marini L, 2008. Evolution of the Vesuvius magmatic-hydrothermal system before the 16 December 1631 eruption. J Volc Geotherm Res, 171: 311-306.

Principe C, Tanguy J-C, Arrighi S, Paiotti A, Le Goff M, Zoppi U, 2004. Chronology of Vesuvius' activity from A.D. 79 to 1631 based on archaeomagnetism of lavas and historical sources. Bull Volc, 66: 703-724.

Rolandi G, Munno R, Postiglione I, 2004. The A.D. 472 eruption of the Somma volcano. J Volc Geotherm Res, 129: 291-319.

Rolandi G, Paone A, De Lascio M, Stefani G, 2008. The 79 AD eruption of Somma: the relationship between the date of the eruption and the southeast tephra dispersion. J Volc Geotherm Res, 169: 87-98.

Rolandi G, Petrosino P, McGeehin J, 1998. The interplinian activity at Somma-Vesuvius in the last 3500 years. J Volc Geotherm Res, 82: 19-52.

Rosi M, Santacroce R, Sbrana A, 1987. Geological Map of Somma-Vesuvius Volcanic Complex. CNR Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica, Rome.

Rosi M, Santacroce R, Sheridan M, 1981. Volcanic hazards of Vesuvius (Italy). Bull BRGM, 4: 169-179.

Sandri L, Guidoboni E, Marzocchi W, Selva J, 2009. Bayesian event tree for eruption forecasting (BET_EF) at Vesuvius, Italy: a retrospective forward application to the 1631 eruption. Bull Volc, 71: 729-745.

Santacroce R , Cioni R, Marianelli P, Sbrana A, Sulpizio R, Zanchetta G, Donahue D J, Joron J L, 2008. Age and whole rock-glass compositions of proximal pyroclastics from the major explosive eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius: a review as a tool for distal tephrochronology. J Volc Geotherm Res, 177: 1-18.

Scandone R, Giacomelli L, Speranza F F, 2008. Persistent activity and violent strombolian eruptions at Vesuvius between 1631 and 1944. J Volc Geotherm Res, 170: 167-180.

Sulpizio R, Bonasia R, Dellino P, Mele D, Di Vito M A, La Volpe L, 2010. The Pomici de Avellino eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (3.9 ks BP). Part II: sedimentology and physical volcanology of pyroclastic density current deposits. Bull Volc, 72: 559-577.

Sulpizio R, Cioni R, Di Vito M A, Mele D, Bonasia R, Dellino P, 2010. The Pomici de Avellino eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (3.9 ks BP). Part I: stratigraphy, compositional variability and eruptive dynamics. Bull Volc, 72: 539-558.

Sulpizio R, Mele D, Dellino P, La Volpe L, 2005. A complex, subplinian-type eruption from low-viscosity, phonolitic to tephri-phonolitic magma: the AD 472 (Pollena) eruption of Somma-Vesuvius. Bull Volc, 67: 743-767.

Trigila R, De Benedetti A A, 1993. Petrogenesis of Vesuvius historical lavas constrained by Pearce element ratios analysis and experimental phase equilibria. J Volc Geotherm Res, 58: 315-343.

Volcano Types

Somma
Caldera
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Phono-tephrite / Tephri-phonolite
Phonolite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Trachyte / Trachyandesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
19,162
675,705
3,907,941
6,009,961

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Vesuvius Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.