Vesuvius

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  • Italy
  • Italy
  • Somma
  • 1944 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 40.821°N
  • 14.426°E

  • 1281 m
    4202 ft

  • 211020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

There are no activity reports for Vesuvius.



 Available Weekly Reports

There are no Weekly Reports available for Vesuvius.

Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1913 Jul 5 1944 Apr 4 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and upper flanks
1875 Dec 18 1906 Apr 22 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Summit and upper flanks
[ 1874 Jan ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
1870 Dec 1872 Apr 30 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and upper NW and south flanks
1864 Feb 10 1868 Nov 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and upper SE flank
1855 Dec 19 1861 Dec 31 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and SW flank (300-225 m)
1854 Dec 14 1855 May 27 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and upper N flank
1841 Sep 20 1850 Feb 16 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit, upper N and E flanks
1835 Jan 1839 Jan 3 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, upper east and west flanks
1824 Jul 2 1834 Sep 2 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, upper E and S flanks
1796 Jan 1822 Nov 16 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and upper flanks
1783 Aug 18 1794 Jul 5 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and SW flank (550-300 m)
1770 Feb 15 1779 Oct 4 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, N, NE, SE and E flanks
1764 1767 Oct 27 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, upper SW, SE, and NNW flanks
1744 Nov (?) 1761 Jan 6 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, upper SE, E and lower S flanks
1742 1743 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1732 Dec 25 1737 Jun 4 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and SW flank
1724 Sep 4 1730 Apr 1 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1708 Aug 14 1723 Jul 8 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, upper east and south flanks
1701 Jul 1 1707 Aug 22 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and SW flank
1697 Sep 15 1698 Jul Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1696 Jul 31 1696 Aug 14 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1685 Oct 3 1694 Apr 29 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1682 Aug 12 1682 Aug 22 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1654 Feb 25 1680 Mar 28 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1637 Jul 1 1652 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1631 Dec 16 1632 Jan 31 (?) Confirmed 5 Historical Observations Summit, SW and S flanks
1570 (in or before) 1572 ± 1 years Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1500 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1347 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
[ 1270 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1150 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1139 Jun 1 1139 Jun 9 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 1073 ± 5 years ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 3  
[ 1049 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1  
1037 Jan 27 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and south flank (I Monticelli?)
1006 Dec 31 ± 365 days Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
0999 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and south flank (Fossamonaca)
0991 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
0968 Dec 1 ± 30 days Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
0900 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Magnetism South and west (Tironi) flanks
0860 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Magnetism South flank
0787 Oct 15 ± 45 days 0788 Jan 15 ± 45 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and south flank
0685 Feb 0685 Mar Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
0536 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
0512 Jul 8 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
[ 0505 Nov 9 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
0472 Nov 5 0472 Nov 6 (?) Confirmed 5 Historical Observations
0379 0395 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 0303 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
0222 0235 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
0203 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
0172 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
0079 Oct 24 (?) 0079 Oct 28 ± 1 days Confirmed 5 Historical Observations
0217 BCE 0216 BCE Confirmed 3 Historical Observations AP6 tephra
0600 BCE (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 3 Anthropology
0880 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) AP3 tephra
1430 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) AP2 tephra
1550 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) AP1 tephra
2420 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected)
6940 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Mercato Pumice

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Alfano G B, Friedlander I, 1929. La Storia del Vesuvio. Naples: K Holm, 71 p, 107 plates.

Andronico D, Cioni R, 2002. Contrasting styles of Mount Vesuvius activity in the period between the Avellino and Pompeii plinian eruptions, and some implications for assessment of future hazards. Bull Volc, 64: 372-391.

Arrighi S, Principe C, Rosi M, 2001. Violent strombolian and subplinian eruptions at Vesuvius during post-1631 activity. Bull Volc, 63: 126-150.

Bertagnini A, Landi P, Rosi M, Vigliargio A, 1998. The Pomici de Base plinian eruption of Somma-Vesuvius. J Volc Geotherm Res, 83: 219-239.

Bruno P P G, Rapolla A, 1999. Study of the sub-surface structure of Somma-Vesuvius (Italy) by seismic reflection data. J Volc Geotherm Res, 92: 373-387.

Bullard F M, 1976. Volcanoes of the Earth. Austin: Univ Texas Press, 579 p.

Cioni R, Santacroce R, Sbrana A, 1999. Pyroclastic deposits as a guide for reconstructing the multi-stage evolution of the Somma-Vesuvius caldera. Bull Volc, 61: 207-222.

Cioni R, Sulpizo R, Garruccio N, 2003. Variability of the eruption dynamics during a subplinian event: the Greenish Pumice eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 124: 89-114.

Civetta L, Santacroce R, 1991. Steady state magma supply in the last 3400 years of Vesuvius activity. Acta Vulc, 2: 147-159.

Delibrias G, Di Paola G M, Rosi M, Santacroce R, 1979. La storia eruttiva del complesso vulcanico Somma Vesuvio ricostruita dalle successioni piroclastiche del Monte Somma. Rendiconti Soc Italiana Min Petr, 35: 411-438.

Di Vito M A, Sulpizio R, Zanchetta G, D'Orazio M, 2008. The late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposits of the Campanian Plain: new insights into the explosive activity of Neapolitan volcanoes. J Volc Geotherm Res, 177: 19-48.

Fulignati P, Marinelli P, Metrich N, Santacroce R, Sbrana A, 2004. Towards a reconstruction of the magmatic feeding system of the 1944 eruption of Mt Vesuvius. J Volc Geotherm Res, 133: 13-22.

Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p.

Gurioli L, Houghton B R, Cashman K V, Cioni R, 2005. Complex changes in eruptive dynamics during the 79 AD eruption of Vesuvius. Bull Volc, 67: 144-159.

Gurioli L, Sulpizio R, Cioni R, Sbrana A, Santacroce R, Luperini W, Andronico D, 2010. Pyroclastic flow hazard assessment at Somma-Vesuvius based on the geological record . Bull Volc, 72: 1021-1038.

Imbo G, 1965. Italy. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 18: 1-72.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Lirer L, Munno R, Postiglione I, Vinci A, Vitelli L, 1997. The A.D. 79 eruption as a future explosive scenario in the Vesuvian area: evaluation of associated risk. Bull Volc, 59: 112-124.

Lirer L, Petrosino P, Alberico I, Postiglione I, 2001. Long-term volcanic hazard forecasts based on Somma-Vesuvio past eruptive activity. Bull Volc, 63: 45-60.

Marianelli P, Metrich N, Sbrana A, 1999. Shallow and deep reservoirs involved in magma supply of the 1944 eruption of Vesuvius. Bull Volc, 61: 48-63.

Mastrolorenzo G, Petrone P, Pappalardo L, Sheridan M F, 2006. The Avellino 3780-yr-B.P. catastrophe as a worst-case scenario for a future eruption at Vesuvius. Proc Nat Acad Sci, 103: 4366-4370.

Milia A, Mirabile L, Torrente M M, Dvorak J J, 1998. Volcanism offshore of Vesuvius volcano in Naples Bay. Bull Volc, 59: 404-413.

Peccerillo A, 2005. Plio-Quaternary Volcanism in Italy. Berlin: Springer, 365 p.

Perrotta A, Scarpati C, Luongo G, Aoyagi M, 2006. Burial of Emperor Augustus' villa at Somma Vesuviana (Italy) by post-79 AD Vesuvius eruptions and reworked (lahars and stream flow) deposits. J Volc Geotherm Res, 158: 445-466.

Principe C, Marini L, 2008. Evolution of the Vesuvius magmatic-hydrothermal system before the 16 December 1631 eruption. J Volc Geotherm Res), 171: 311-306.

Principe C, Tanguy J-C, Arrighi S, Paiotti A, Le Goff M, Zoppi U, 2004. Chronology of Vesuvius' activity from A.D. 79 to 1631 based on archaeomagnetism of lavas and historical sources. Bull Volc, 66: 703-724.

Rolandi G, Munno R, Postiglione I, 2004. The A.D. 472 eruption of the Somma volcano. J Volc Geotherm Res, 129: 291-319.

Rolandi G, Paone A, De Lascio M, Stefani G, 2008. The 79 AD eruption of Somma: the relationship between the date of the eruption and the southeast tephra dispersion. J Volc Geotherm Res, 169: 87-98.

Rolandi G, Petrosino P, McGeehin J, 1998. The interplinian activity at Somma-Vesuvius in the last 3500 years. J Volc Geotherm Res, 82: 19-52.

Rosi M, Santacroce R, Sbrana A, 1987. Geological Map of Somma-Vesuvius Volcanic Complex. CNR Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica, Rome.

Rosi M, Santacroce R, Sheridan M, 1981. Volcanic hazards of Vesuvius (Italy). Bull BRGM, 4: 169-179.

Sandri L, Guidoboni E, Marzocchi W, Selva J, 2009. Bayesian event tree for eruption forecasting (BET_EF) at Vesuvius, Italy: a retrospective forward application to the 1631 eruption. Bull Volc, 71: 729-745.

Santacroce R , Cioni R, Marianelli P, Sbrana A, Sulpizio R, Zanchetta G, Donahue D J, Joron J L, 2008. Age and whole rock-glass compositions of proximal pyroclastics from the major explosive eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius: a review as a tool for distal tephrochronology. J Volc Geotherm Res, 177: 1-18.

Scandone R, Giacomelli L, Speranza F F, 2008. Persistent activity and violent strombolian eruptions at Vesuvius between 1631 and 1944. J Volc Geotherm Res, 170: 167-180.

Sulpizio R, Bonasia R, Dellino P, Mele D, Di Vito M A, La Volpe L, 2010. The Pomici de Avellino eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (3.9 ks BP). Part II: sedimentology and physical volcanology of pyroclastic density current deposits. Bull Volc, 72: 559-577.

Sulpizio R, Cioni R, Di Vito M A, Mele D, Bonasia R, Dellino P, 2010. The Pomici de Avellino eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (3.9 ks BP). Part I: stratigraphy, compositional variability and eruptive dynamics. Bull Volc, 72: 539-558.

Sulpizio R, Mele D, Dellino P, La Volpe L, 2005. A complex, subplinian-type eruption from low-viscosity, phonolitic to tephri-phonolitic magma: the AD 472 (Pollena) eruption of Somma-Vesuvius. Bull Volc, 67: 743-767.

Trigila R, De Benedetti A A, 1993. Petrogenesis of Vesuvius historical lavas constrained by Pearce element ratios analysis and experimental phase equilibria. J Volc Geotherm Res, 58: 315-343.

One of the world's most noted volcanoes, Vesuvius (Vesuvio) forms a dramatic backdrop to the Bay of Naples. The historically active cone of Vesuvius was constructed within a large caldera of the ancestral Monte Somma volcano, thought to have formed incrementally beginning about 17,000 years ago. The Monte Somma caldera wall has channeled lava flows and pyroclastic flows primarily to the south and west. Eight major explosive eruptions have taken place in the last 17,000 years, often accompanied by large pyroclastic flows and surges, such as during the well-known 79 CE Pompeii eruption. Intermittent eruptions since 79 CE were followed by a period of frequent long-term explosive and effusive eruptions beginning in 1631 and lasting until 1944. The 1631 eruption was the largest since 79 CE and produced devastating pyroclastic flows that reached as far as the coast and caused great destruction. Many towns are located on the volcano's flanks, and several million people live within areas potentially affected by eruptions of Vesuvius.