Campi Flegrei

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  • Italy
  • Italy
  • Caldera
  • 1538 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 40.827°N
  • 14.139°E

  • 458 m
    1502 ft

  • 211010
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

There are no activity reports for Campi Flegrei.



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Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1538 Sep 29 1538 Oct 6 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Monte Nuovo
1198 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Solfatara
1650 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Fossa Lupara (Monte Senga)
1870 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Astroni
2000 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Averno
2040 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology Solfatara
2080 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology Monte Olibano-Accademia
2150 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Agnano Monte Spina
2220 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Eastern NYT caldera, Paleoastroni 2 tephra
2330 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology Paleoastroni 1 tephra
2440 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Agnano-Monte Sant'Angelo
2500 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Cigliano
2580 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Averno 1, Agnano 2 tephras
2890 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East part of NYT caldera, Agnano 1 tephra
6300 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) N part of NYT caldera (San Martino)
6490 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology Eastern part of NYT caldera
6650 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Fondi di Baia, Sartania
7590 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) NE part of NYT caldera, Pisani 3 tephra
7980 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology Soccavo, Minapoli, Pisani & other vents
8480 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Agnano Pomici Principali tephra

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Armienti P, Barberi F, Bizouard H, Clocchiatti R, Innocenti F, Metrich N, Rosi M, Sbrana A, 1983. The Phlegrean Fields: magma evolution within a shallow chamber. J Volc Geotherm Res, 17: 289-311.

Bruno P P, 2004. Structure and evolution of the Bay of Pozzuoli (Italy) using marine seismic relflection data: implications for collapse of the Campi Flegrei caldera.. Bull Volc, 66: 342-355.

Costa A, Dell'Erba F, Di Vito M A, Isaia R, Macedonio G, Orsi G, Pfeiffer T, 2009. Tephra fallout hazard assessment at the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy). Bull Volc, 71: 259-273.

Cubellis E, Ferri M, Luongo G, 1995. Internal structures of the Campi Flegrei caldera by gravimetric data. J Volc Geotherm Res, 65: 147-156.

Deino A L, Orsi G, de Vita S, Piochi M, 2004. The age of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff caldera-forming eruption (Campi Flegrei caldera - Italy) assessed by 40Ar/39Ar dating method. J Volc Geotherm Res, 133: 157-170.

Dellino P, Isaia R, La Volpe L, Orsi G, 2001. Statistical analysis of textural data from complex pyroclastic sequences: implications for fragmentation processes of the Agnano-Monte Spine Tephra (4.1 ka), Phlegrean Fields, southern Italy. Bull Volc, 63: 443-461.

Dellino P, Isaia R, La Volpe L, Orsi G, 2004. Interaction between particles transported by fallout and surge in the deposits of the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (Campi Flegrei, southern Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 133: 193-210.

Di Girolamo P, Ghiara M R, Lirer L, Munno R, Rolandi G, Stanzione D, 1984. Vulcanologia e petrologia dei Campi Flegrei. Bol Soc Geol Italia, 103: 394-413.

Di Vito M A, Isaia R, Orsi G, Southon J, de Vita S, D'Antonio M D, Pappalardo L, Piochi M, 1999. Volcanism and deformation since 12,000 years at the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 91: 221-246.

Di Vito M A, Sulpizio R, Zanchetta G, D'Orazio M, 2008. The late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposits of the Campanian Plain: new insights into the explosive activity of Neapolitan volcanoes. J Volc Geotherm Res, 177: 19-48.

D'Oriano C, Poggianti E, Bertagnini A, Cioni R, Landi P, Polacci M, Rosi M, 2005. Changes in eruptive style during the A.D. 1538 Monte Nuovo eruption (Phlegrean Fields, Italy): the role of syn-eruptive crystallization. Bull Volc 67: 601-621.

Fedele L, Scarpati C, Lanphere M, Melluso L, Morra V, Perrotta A, Ricci G, 2008. The Breccia Museo formation, Campi Flegrei, southern Italy: geochronology, chemostratigraphy and relationship with the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption. Bull Volc, 70: 1189-1219.

Fisher R V, Orsi G, Ort M, Heiken G, 1993. Mobility of a large-volume pyroclastic flow - emplacement of the Campanian ignimbrite, Italy. J Volc Geotherm Res, 56: 205-220.

Fulignati P, Marianelli P, Proto M, Sbrana A, 2004. Evidences for disruption of a crystallizing front in a magma chamber during caldera collapse: an example from the Breccia Museo (Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 133: 141-155.

Grindley G W, 1976. Relation of volcanism to earth movements, Bay of Naples, Italy. In: Gonzalez-Ferran O (ed) {Proc Symp Andean & Antarctic Volcanology Problems (Santiago, Chile, Sept 1974)}, Rome: IAVCEI, p 598-612.

Imbo G, 1965. Italy. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 18: 1-72.

Isaia R, D'Antonio M, Dell'Erba F, Di Vito M, Orsi G, 2004. The Astroni volcano: the only example of closely spaced eruptions in the same vent area during the recent history of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 133: 171-192.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Lirer L, Luongo G, Scandone R, 1987. On the volcanological evolution of Campi Flegrei. Eos, Trans Amer Geophys Union, 68: 226-227, 229, 231, 233-234.

Lirer L, Petrosino P, Alberico I, 2001. Hazard assessment at volcanic fields: the Campi Flegrei case history. J Volc Geotherm Res, 112: 53-73.

Melluso L, Morra V, Perrotta A, Scarpati C, Adabbo M, 1995. The eruption of The Breccia Museo (Campi Flegrei, Italy): fractional crystallization processes in a shallow, zoned magma chamber and implications for the eruptive dynamics. J Volc Geotherm Res, 68: 325-339.

Orsi G, Civetta L, D'Antonio M D, Di Girolamo P, Piochi M, 1995. Step-filling and development of a three-layer magma chamber: the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff case history. J Volc Geotherm Res, 67: 291-312.

Orsi G, D'Antonio M, de Vita S, Gallo G, 1992. The Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, a large-magnitude trachytic phreatoplinian eruption: eruptive dynamics, magma withdrawal and caldera collapse. J Volc Geotherm Res, 53: 275-287.

Orsi G, De Vita S, di Vito M, 1996. The restless, resurgent Campi Flegrei nested caldera (Italy): constraints on its evolution and configuration. J Volc Geotherm Res, 74: 179-214.

Orsi G, Di Vito M A, Isaia R, 2004. Volcanic hazard assessment at the restless Campi Flegrei caldera. Bull Volc, 66: 514-530.

Peccerillo A, 2005. Plio-Quaternary Volcanism in Italy. Berlin: Springer, 365 p.

Perrotta A, Scarpati C, 1994. The dynamics of the Breccia Museo eruption (Campi Flegrei, Italy) and the significance of spatter clasts associated with lithic breccias. J Volc Geotherm Res, 59: 335-355.

Rosi M, Sbrana A, 1987. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Quaderni de "la Ricerca Scientifica". CNR Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica, Rome, v 9.

Rosi M, Sbrana A, Principe C, 1983. The Phlegrean Fields: structural evolution, volcanic history and eruptive mechanisms. J Volc Geotherm Res, 17: 273-288.

Rosi M, Vezzoli L, Aleotti P, De Censi M, 1996. Interaction between caldera collapse and eruptive dynamics during the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, Phelegraean Fields, Italy. Bull Volc, 57: 541-554.

Rosi M, Vezzoli L, Castelmenzano A, Grieco G, 1999. Plinian pumice fall deposit of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption (Phlegraean Fields, Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 91: 179-198.

Scandone R, 1987. . (pers. comm.).

Scandone R, D'Amato J, Giacomelli L, 2010. The relevance of the 1198 eruption of Solfatara in the Phlegraean Fields (Campi Flegrei) as revealed by medieval manuscripts and historical sources. J Volc Geotherm Res, 189: 202-206.

Valentini L, Capaccioni B, Rossi P L, Scandone R, Sarocchi D, 2008. Vent area and depositional mechanism of the Upper Member of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (Campi Flegrei, Italy): new insights from directional fabric through image analysis. Bull Volc, 70: 1087-1101.

Wohletz K, Orsi G, de Vita S, 1995. Eruptive mechanisms of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff interpreted from stratigraphic, chemical, and granulometric data. J Volc Geotherm Res, 67: 263-290.

Campi Flegrei is a large 13-km-wide caldera on the outskirts of Naples that contains numerous phreatic tuff rings and pyroclastic cones. The caldera margins are poorly defined and on the south lie beneath the Gulf of Pozzuoli. Episodes of dramatic uplift and subsidence within the dominantly trachytic caldera have occurred since Roman times. The earliest known eruptive products are dated 47,000 years before present (BP). The Campi Flegrei caldera formed following two large explosive eruptions, the massive Campanian ignimbrite about 36,000 years BP, and the >40 cu km Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) about 15,000 years BP. Following eruption of the NYT a large number of eruptions have taken place from widely scattered subaerial and submarine vents. Most activity occurred during three intervals: 15,000-9500, 8600-8200, and 4800-3800 years BP. Two eruptions have occurred in historical time, one in 1158 at Solfatara and the other in 1538 that formed the Monte Nuovo cinder cone.