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The Alban Hills (Colli Albano) complex immediately SE of Rome contains a large Pleistocene stratovolcano with a 10 x 12 km wide caldera. The caldera was formed during an eruptive period with six major explosive eruptions producing at least 280 cu km of ejecta between about 560,000 and 350,000 years ago. Subsequent eruptions occurred from a new 5-km-wide central cone and from many phreatomagmatic craters and cones within the Artemisio-Tuscolana caldera and on its outer flanks. The post-caldera eruptions have buried the western side of the caldera rim. The largest of the post-caldera craters is Lake Albano, a 4 x 2.5 km wide compound maar constructed at the WSW margin of the caldera in multiple stages dating back to about 69,000 years ago. The age of the most recent eruptions from the Albano maar is not known precisely; variable dates range from about 36,000 years ago to perhaps the Holocene, when several perhaps non-volcanic lake overflow lahars occurred. Reported historical eruptions during the Roman period are uncertain, but seismic swarms of up to two years duration have been recorded since Roman times.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|[ 0114 BCE ]||[ Unknown ]||Discredited|
|[ 0540 BCE (?) ]||[ Unknown ]||Discredited|
|[ 0600 BCE ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain||Ariccia crater|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Colli Albani | Colli Laziale | Cavo, Monte | Laziale, Vulcano | Albains, Monts | Latial | Artemisio|
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Cavo, Mount||Pyroclastic cone||949 m|
|Colle Iano||Pyroclastic cone|
|Faete, Monte della||Stratovolcano|
|Rocca de Papa||Cone|
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Vulcano Laziale||Pleistocene caldera|
|Lake-filled Albano maar is part of the Alban Hills (Monte Albano) complex immediately SE of Rome. The Cavo scoria cone rises beyond the far rim. The Monte Albano complex contains a large Pleistocene stratovolcano with a 10-km-wide caldera. Subsequent eruptions occurred from a new 5-km-wide central cone and from many phreatomagmatic craters and cones within the caldera and on its outer flanks. The youngest dated magmatic eruption occurred during the late-Pleistocene, but the possibility of Holocene phreatic eruptions has not been excluded.
Photo by Ichio Moriya (Kanazawa University).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Amato A, Chiarabba C, Cocco M, di Bona M, Selvaggi G, 1994. The 1989-1990 seismic swarm in the Alban Hills volcanic area, central Italy. J Volc Geotherm Res, 61: 225-237.
Anzidei M, Baldi P, Casula G, Galvani A, Riguzzi F, Zanutta A, 1998. Evidence of active crustal deformation of the Colli Albani volcanic area (central Italy) by GPS surveys. J Volc Geotherm Res, 80: 55-65.
Anzidei M, Carapezza M L, Esposito A, Giordano G, Lelli M, Tarchini L, 2008. The Albano Maar Lake high resolution bathymetry and dissolved CO budget (Colli Albani volcano, Italy): constraints to hazard evaluation. J Volc Geotherm Res, 171: 258-268.
Blanc A C, 1953. Excursion au Mont Circe. Internatl Quat Assoc (INQUA) Guidebook, p 5-19.
Boari E, Avanzinelli R, Melluso L, Giordano G, Mattei M, De Benedetti A A, Morra V, Conticelli S, 2009. Isotope geochemistry (Sr-Nd-Pb) and petrogenesis of leucite-bearing volcanic rocks from "Colli Albani" volcano, Roman Magmatic Province, Central Italy: inferences on volcano evolution and magma genesis. Bull Volc, 71: 977-1005.
Chiarabba C, Amato A, Delaney P T, 1997. Crustal structure, evolution, and volcanic unrest of the Alban Hills, central Italy. Bull Volc, 59: 161-170.
De Benedetti A A, Funiciello R, Giodano G, Diano G, Caprilli E, Paterne M, 2008. Volcanology, history and myths of the Lake Albano maar (Colli Albani volcano, Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 176: 387-406.
De Rita D, Funiciello R, Rosa C, 1991. Volcanic activity and drainage network evolution of the Alban Hills area (Rome, Italy). Acta Vulc, 2: 185-198.
De Rita D, Giordano G, Esposito A, Fabbri M, Rodani S, 2002. Large volume phreatomagmatic ignimbrites from the Colli Albani volcano (Middle Pleistocene, Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 118: 77-98.
Freda C, Gaeta M, Karner D B, Marra F, Renne P R, Taddeucci J, Scarlato P, Christensen J N, Dallai L, 2006. Eruptive history and petrologic evolution of the Albano multiple maar (Alban Hills, Central Italy). Bull Volc, 68: 567-591.
Freda C, Gaeta M, Palladino D M, Trigila R, 1997. The Villa Senni eruption (Alban Hills, central Italy: the role of H20 and CO2 on the magma chamber evolution and on the eruptive scenario. J Volc Geotherm Res, 78: 103-120.
Funiciello R, Giodano G, De Rita D, 2003. The Albano maar lake (Colli Albani volcano, Italy): recent volcanic activity and evidence of pre-Roman age catastrophic lahar events. J Volc Geotherm Res, 123: 43-61.
Giaccio B, Marra F, Hajdas I, Karner D B, Renne P R, Sposato A, 2009. 40Ar/39Ar and 14C geochronology of the Albano maar deposits: implications for defining the age and eruptive style of the most recent explosive activity at Colli Albani volcanic district, Central Italy. J Volc Geotherm Res, 185: 203-213.
Giordano G, De Benedetti A A, Diana A, Diano G, Gaudioso F, Marasco F, Miceli M, Mollo S, Cas R A F, Funiciello R, 2006. The Colli Albani mafic caldera (Roma, Italy): stratigraphy, structure and petrology. J Volc Geotherm Res, 155: 49-80.
Giordano G, De Rita D, Cas R, Rodani S, 2002. Valley pond and ignimbrite veneer deposits in the small-volume phreatomagmatic `Peperino Albano' basic ignimbrite, Lago Albano maar, Colli Albani volcano, Italy: influence of topography. J Volc Geotherm Res, 118: 131-144.
IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..
Karner D B, Marra F, Renne P R, 2001. The history of the Monti Sabatini and Alban Hills volcanoes: groundwork for assessing volcanic-tectonic hazards for Rome. J Volc Geotherm Res, 107: 185-219.
Krafft M, 1974. Guide des Volcans d'Europe. Neuchatel: Delachaux & Niestle, 412 p.
Krafft M, Dominique de Larouziere F, 1991. Guide des Volcans d'Europe et des Canaries. Lausanne, Switzerland: Delachaux and Niestle, 455 p.
Marra F, Freda C, Scarlato P, Taddeucci J, Karner D B, Renne P R, Gaeta M, Palladino D M, Trigila R, Cavarretta G, 2003. Post-caldera activity in the Alban Hills volcanic district (Italy): 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and insights into magma evolution. Bull Volc, 65: 227-247.
Marra F, Karner D B, Freda C, Gaeta M, Renne P, 2009. Large mafic eruptions at Alban Hills volcanic district (Central Italy): chronostratigraphy, petrography and eruptive behavior. J Volc Geotherm Res, 179: 217-232.
Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.
Palladino D M, Gaeta M, Marra F, 2001. A large K-foiditic hydromagmatic eruption from the early activity of the Alban Hills volcanic district, Italy. Bull Volc, 63: 345-359.
Peccerillo A, Poli G, Tolomeo L, 1984. Genesis, evolution and tectonic significance of K-rich volcanics from the Alban Hills (Roman comagmatic region) as inferred from trace element geochemistry. Contr Mineral Petr, 86: 230-240.
Porreca M, Mattei M, MacNiocaill C, Giordano G, McClelland E, Funiciello R, 2008. Palemagnetic evidence for low-temperature emplacement of the phreatomagmatic Peperino Albano ignimbrite (Colli Albani volcano, Central Italy). Bull Volc, 70: 877-893.
Scandone R, 1987. . (pers. comm.).
Stothers R B, Rampino M R, 1983. Volcanic eruptions in the Mediterranean before AD 630 from written and archaeological sources. J Geophys Res, 88: 6357-6371.
Villa I M, Calanchi N, Dinelli E, Lucchini F, 1999. Age and evolution of the Albano crater lake (Roman Volcanic Province). Acta Vulc, 11: 305-310.
Watkins S D, Giordano G, Cas R A F, De Rita D , 2002. Emplacement processes of the mafic Villa Senni Eruption Unit (VSEU) ignimbrite succession, Colli Albani volcano, Italy. J Volc Geotherm Res, 118: 173-203.