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Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|0104 BCE||Unknown||Confirmed||Historical Observations|
The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.
Barberi F, Innocenti F, Landi P, Rossi U, Saitta M, Santacroce R, Villa I M, 1984. The evolution of Latera caldera (Central Italy) in the light of subsurface data. Bull Volc, 47: 125-143.
Capaccioni B, Nappi G, Renzulli A, 1994. Stratigraphy, eruptive mechanisms and depositional processes of the Pitigliano Formation (Latera volcanic complex), Vulsini District, Italy. Acta Vulc, 5: 31-39.
IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..
Nappi G, Capaccioni B, Mattioli M, Mancini E, Valentini L, 1994. Plinian fall deposits from Vulsini District (Central Italy). Bull Volc, 56: 502-515.
Palladino D M, Agosta E, 1997. Pumice fall deposits of the western Vulsini volcanoes (central Italy). J Volc Geotherm Res, 78: 77-102.
Palladino D M, Simei S, 2002. Three types of pyroclastic currents and their deposits: examples from the Vulsini Volcanoes, Italy. J Volc Geotherm Res, 116: 97-118.
Palladino D M, Simei S, 2005. Eruptive dynamics and caldera collapse during the Onano eruption, Vulsini, Italy. Bull Volc, 67: 423-440.
Palladino D M, Valentine G A, 1995. Coarse-tail vertical and lateral grading in pyroclastic flow deposits of the Latera volcanic complex (Vulsini, central Italy): origin and implications for flow dynamics. J Volc Geotherm Res, 69: 343-364.
Sparks R S J, 1975. Stratigraphy and geology of the ignimbrites of Vulsini volcano, central Italy. Geol Rundschau, 64: 497-523.
Stothers R B, Rampino M R, 1983. Volcanic eruptions in the Mediterranean before AD 630 from written and archaeological sources. J Geophys Res, 88: 6357-6371.
Varekamp J C, 1980. The geology of the Vulsinian area, Lazio, Italy. Bull Volc, 43: 487-504.
The Vulsini volcanic complex in central Italy covers about 2200 sq km at the northern end of the Roman magmatic province. Following lava extrusion and explosive eruptions that constructed the main Vulsini complex, the 16-km-wide, lake-filled Bolsena caldera on the east and the 8 x 11 km Latera caldera on the west were formed during major Pleistocene explosive eruptions at about 0.3 and 0.16 million years ago, respectively. Five major plinian fall deposits were erupted from vents at or near Latera caldera during the late Pleistocene. The latest major eruption formed unwelded pumice flows and welded airfall tuffs of the Pitigliano Formation, associated with collapse of the Vepe caldera about 166,000 years ago at the NW end of Latera caldera. Post-caldera volcanism produced scoria cones and lava flows from vents within and to the west of Latera caldera and lasted until subrecent times. Youthful-looking remnants of ash cones in Lake Bolsena may have given rise to a legend of a pre-historical fire-god, Volta. An historical report noted that "a flame shot up near Volsini" in 104 BCE.