Activity for the week of 9 July-15 July 2014
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 9 July-15 July 2014
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Copahue||Central Chile-Argentina border||New|
|Bezymianny||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Merapi||Central Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|San Miguel||El Salvador||Ongoing|
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Shiveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Slamet||Central Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Stromboli||Aeolian Islands (Italy)||Ongoing|
|Zhupanovsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Ambang | Sulawesi (Indonesia) | 0.75°N, 124.42°E | Elevation 1795 m
On 3 July, CVGHM reported a significant increase in seismicity from Ambang, particularly shallow earthquakes (VB). During 1 June-2 July, 7-9 shallow volcanic (VB) and 2-9 deep volcanic (VA) earthquakes were detected per week, for totals of 33 VB and 29 VA earthquakes in that time. The Alert Level was raised to Level 2 on 3 July. An exclusion zone was placed around the crater with a radius of 1.5 km. Persistent diffuse gas emissions were observed reaching 10-25 m above the crater.
CVGHM noted that previous eruptions from Ambang were dominated by effusive lava flows and were punctuated by explosive eruptions producing pyroclastic flows and fallout. Ambang has an eruption frequency of once every 39-127 years; the last event recorded was a phreatic explosion in 2005. A persistent fumarolic field remains from that activity. CVGHM noted that a magmatic eruption generating pyroclastic flows would threaten communities SE of the summit including the villages of Bongkudai, Goaan, Purworejo, and Modayong.
Bulusan | Luzon (Philippines) | 12.77°N, 124.05°E | Elevation 1565 m
On 13 July, PHIVLOCS reported that several days of elevated seismicity at Bulusan continued. During the previous 24 hours, 13 volcanic earthquakes were recorded by the local network. GPS and leveling surveys determined that the volcano was slightly inflated. Alert Level 0 and the 4-km restricted zone, the Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ), were maintained due to the possibility of sudden and hazardous steam-driven or phreatic eruptions.
Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border | 37.856°S, 71.183°W | Elevation 2953 m
SERNAGEOMIN reported that a phreatic explosion from Copahue occurred at 2023 on 4 July that deposited bombs (less than 12 cm in diameter), lapilli (less than 4 cm), ash, and gray clay smelling strongly of sulfuric acid along the E flank of the crater. During an overflight on 7 July, OVDAS officials observed the deposit and measured a moderate amount of gas emissions (an average of 4,000 tons per day of SO2), a relatively low level of water in the crater, and low temperatures of the fumaroles within El Agrio crater. DOAS stations had measured up to 18,000 tons/day of SO2 on the day of the explosion. An anomalous tremor signal was detected at 0823 on 5 July that was associated with an explosion from El Agrio crater; a microphone installation 13 km E also detected an acoustic signal. The explosion generated a plume 1,000 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow.
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
During 11-14 July, JMA reported four large explosions that ejected deposits 800-1,300 m from Showa crater. Volcanic earthquakes decreased and tremor continued. The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 3-14 July plumes rose to altitudes of 2-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, SE, and E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 55.978°N, 160.587°E | Elevation 2882 m
KVERT reported that Bezymianny’s activity continued during 2-10 July; shallow earthquakes were registered. Satellite data showed the volcano frequently obscured by clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.68°N, 127.88°E | Elevation 1335 m
Etna | Sicily (Italy) | 37.734°N, 15.004°E | Elevation 3330 m
INGV reported that a new, small fissure (tens of meters long) developed on the E flank of Etna during 5-6 July. The vent was located around 3,015-3,025 m elevation. Weak spattering from this vent fed a lava flow that extended ~100 m within the saddle of the NE and SE craters and cones. Weak and sporadic strombolian explosions and small ash emissions were observed during 6-7 July from New SE Crater, but by 11 July this activity had ceased.
Activity from the new fissure continued through 11 July with frequent strombolian explosions that were audible in nearby towns. The lava flow diverged, and the longest of the two branches extended ~1.5 km, reaching the bottom of Valle del Leone.
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
During 30 June-14 July, INSIVUMEH frequently reported a white fumarolic plume rising from Fuego’s summit extending up to 4,000 m (13,123 ft) a.s.l.. Weak-to-moderate explosions generated ash plumes to similar heights during 30 June and 1, 4, 6, 7, and 9-13 July. Rumbling and jetting sounds often accompanied these explosions, often with durations of 1-5 minutes. Pulses of incandescence reached 50-100 m above the rim on 30 June, and 6, 7, and 12 July. Remobilized ash reduced visibility on 4, 9, and 10 July. Surges of lava and incandescent avalanches traveled from the summit down the flanks on 1 July (~150 m into the Trinidad drainage), 6 July (100 m into Taniluya and 200 m into the Ceniza), 11 July (~100 m into Taniluya), 12 July (Santa Teresa, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda), and 13 July (~400 m into the Ceniza).
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.05°N, 159.45°E | Elevation 1536 m
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 2-14 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater. The lava-lake level fluctuated between 30 and 45 m below the Overlook crater rim; on 13 July, the level dropped 45-50 m during periods of spattering. Weak inflation was measured at the summit during 2-8 July, deflation during 9-10 July, no significant deformation during 11-13 July, and slight inflation on 14 July. Gas emissions remained elevated; during the weeks ending on 1 and 8 July, the summit SO2 emission rates were 3,800-8,400 tonnes/day and 5,800-6,900 tonnes/day, respectively. Earthquakes during 2-7 July (11-21/day) and 8-14 July (5-27/day) were strong enough to be located beneath Kilauea. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.
On 3 July, the total SO2 emission rate from all East Rift Zone sources was 500 tonnes per day. During 2-14 July, four lava ponds within cones occupied the crater floor of Pu`u`O`o. The vent which opened on the NE flank of Pu`u`O`o on 27 June remained active and supplied a flow extending NE, constructing a lava shield that continued to expand until 10 July. This new flow cut off lava supply to the Kahauale`a 2 flow, which by 3 July was no longer active. The new shield developed a perched lava pond which crusted over and became quiescent when the pond spilled over on 11 July. Lava continued to erupt from the base of the structure, supplying flows that accumulated around the flat-lying terrain at the base of Pu`u`O`o until 14 July. Continuous deflation was measured at Pu`u`O`o.
Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) | 7.542°S, 110.442°E | Elevation 2968 m
PVMBG reported that during 4-10 July seismicity at Merapi fluctuated at normal levels. Deformation measurements showed general inflation. Solfatara plumes rose 450 m above the summit on 4 July. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).
Nishinoshima | Japan | 27.247°N, 140.874°E | Elevation 25 m
Tokyo VAAC reported volcanic ash from Nishinoshima at 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. at 2203 on 30 June; the plume extended NE. However, ash was not visible in satellite images. The University of Hawaii reported that Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data detected thermal anomalies and issued MODVOLC alerts during 25 June-13 July with the exceptions of 8, 11, and 12 July.
Pacaya | Guatemala | 14.381°N, 90.601°W | Elevation 2552 m
INSIVUMEH reported that on most days during 30 June-13 July, fumarolic plumes rose above Pacaya and drifted up to 1 km W, SW, and S. Associated seismicity was notable on 4, 6, 9-11, and 13 July. Elevated seismicity on 10 July corresponded to minor explosions from Mackenney Crater.
Popocatépetl | Mexico | 19.023°N, 98.622°W | Elevation 5426 m
CENAPRED reported that during 24 June-15 July, seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and occasional small amounts of ash. Cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. Slight nighttime incandescence was observed during 25 and 26 June and also during 1-3, 6-8, and 10-15 July. Explosions from the summit were detected an average of 10 times each day, producing plumes with minor ash content that rose 500-2,500 m above the crater and drifted NE and NW. Activity increased in early July; up to 216 explosions (low and moderate intensity) were detected over 24 hours on 9 July. CENAPRED reported harmonic tremor on 2 July (maximum of 80 minutes in 24 hours) and 12 July (minimum of 8 minutes). The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.
Reventador | Ecuador | 0.077°S, 77.656°W | Elevation 3562 m
IG reported that although cloud cover often prevented observations of Reventador, during 30 June and 2, 4, and 9-12 July ash emissions were seen. In the afternoon of 30 June, a diffuse ash plume was visible rising from the summit. Activity increased on 2 July when 41 explosions were recorded, as well as 27 long-period earthquakes and 15 episodes of tremor associated with emissions. A 2-km-high gas-and-ash plume was observed rising from the summit on the morning of 2 July that drifted SE and later that night an explosion was heard. The IG reported that SOTE (Sistema de Oleoducto Transecuatoriano) personnel heard explosions during the morning of 8 July. The next morning, SOTE personnel noted that the summit was clear and a gas-and-ash plume was rising from the summit up to 2 km above the crater rim. Diffuse ash plumes were also noted on 10 and 11 July that reached 1.5 km above the crater and drifted NW.
The seismic network detected the highest number of explosion signatures during 2-5 July when 34-45 events per day were detected. Up to 12 episodes of harmonic tremor per day occurred during 4 and 5 July. The highest number of long-period earthquakes occurred during 10-11 July: 90 events per day. Tremor signatures associated with emissions had a wide range during this reporting period (0-28 per day), but typically numbered less than 15 per day.
Sabancaya | Peru | 15.78°S, 71.85°W | Elevation 5967 m
IGP reported that during 12-27 June there were renewed signs of activity from Sabancaya. Fumarolic activity increased and gases were notably more blue and gray. Seismicity also increased, particularly long-period (LP) earthquakes (~100 LP events per day during 18, 19, and 21 June). Since 6 June, hybrid earthquakes were detected; IGP noted that this seismicity can be attributed to rising magma. During 6-10 July, a daily average of 11 hybrid earthquakes was recorded. In the past few weeks, volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes migrated closer to the volcano, especially when the locations were compared with those from 2013. Within a week, the concentration of VT earthquakes had moved ~10 km closer to the crater, reaching a distance ~6 km N of the crater. This activity prompted IGP to install a new seismometer to augment their monitoring capabilities, now comprising six seismometers.
From mid-June through 10 July, fumarolic activity continued and white plumes were visible, although with less intensity within the last two weeks. Seismicity increased during this time period, particularly on 30 June and 1 July when a daily average of 87 LP earthquakes was recorded. From 27 June through 6 July, there was a daily average of 44 VT earthquakes. VT earthquakes were also occurring close to the crater. There were three persistent clusters of VT earthquakes near the crater: 6 km N, 16 km NE, and 10 km E.
San Miguel | El Salvador | 13.434°N, 88.269°W | Elevation 2130 m
According to the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARN), elevated activity was detected on 10 July from San Miguel. RSAM had increased significantly and was also high on 14 July, but decreased the next day. On 15 July MARN reported that seismicity was continuing from the N flank. SO2 flux measurements indicated a significant decrease of gas.
Santa María | Guatemala | 14.756°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3772 m
INSIVUMEH reported that on most days during 30 June-14 July the active lava dome of Santiaguito was visibly degassing and generating plumes rising up to ~3,000 m (10,000 ft) a.s.l. that tended to drift SW. Weak explosions with some rumbling sounds occurred during this time period and ashfall was reported in the high terrain of Parcelamiento Monte Claro (S) on 2 and 14 July. Explosions were observed on 5, 7, and 10 July that ejected incandescent tephra up to 50 m above the crater rim. The active lava flow front on the E flank was also a frequent source of incandescence that generated hot avalanches into the drainages of Nimá 1 (E) and San Isidro (SW). On 2 and 10 July slope failures were reported from the scarp remaining from the 9 May 2014 eruption.
On 15 July at 1430 lahars were triggered by heavy rainfall. INSIVUMEH reported that lahars were channelized within Nimá 1, San Isidro, and the tributaries of Samala. Seismic stations detected the flow; hot volcanic material dominated the lahars as well as tree trunks and branches and blocks 1-2 m in diameter. Vapor was rising from the lahars and there was a strong sulfur odor. INSIVUMEH extended the warning for the region, including the high bridge of Castillo Armas (on the international highway NE of San Sebastián) due to the convergence of several flows upstream from that site.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that during 2-15 July low-level seismicity continued at Shishaldin volcano. Elevated surface temperatures at the summit were detected. A steam and gas plume was intermittently visible rising from the summit and drifting downwind, although satellite and web-camera images were mostly obscured due to clouds. On 9 July small explosions, probably within the summit cone, were detected on seismic and infrasound networks. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Shiveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 3-10 July lava-dome extrusion onto Shiveluch’s SE flank was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Ash plumes rose to 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. on 30 June and 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. during 5-8 July. During 7-8 July, satellite images detected ash plumes extending 280 km SE of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
CVGHM reported a white plume that was occasionally brown and blue reaching 100-2,000 m above Sinabung’s crater during 8-14 July. Pyroclastic flows were observed on 10 and 12 July from the W side of the crater. On 10 July, the hot flows reached a maximum of 3 km S while the flows on 12 July extended 3-4 km S. A spokesman from the national disaster management agency noted that hot ashfall occurred in several places around the Karo district, but did not merit further evacuations. CVGHM reported that SO2 emissions were measured once during 8-14 July and yielded 1,252 tonnes/day; during the elevated activity of 11-18 January 2014 values were as high as 3,796 tonnes/day. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).
Slamet | Central Java (Indonesia) | 7.242°S, 109.208°E | Elevation 3428 m
CVGHM reported that incandescence had been visible 14 times in May and there were ash eruptions reaching 150-1,500 m above Slamet’s summit that drifted NW and W. White plumes were typically visible 50-800 m above the summit in May and June. There were 14 moderate ash eruptions during 15-30 June that generated plumes 500-1,400 m above the summit and drifted N and W. Incandescence was visible three times in June. During 1-2 July, there were 17 moderate ash plumes that generated plumes 300-1,200 m above the summit that drifted N and W. Alert Level 2 was maintained and visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 2 km.
Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) | 38.789°N, 15.213°E | Elevation 924 m
INGV reported that during 30 June-1 July, small landslides occurred on Stromboli's Sciara del Fuoco. A new lava flow that began on 7 July flowed from the high part of Sciara del Fuoco (N2) and followed the path of the previous flows. A hot avalanche occurred at 0733 that reached the coastline and was followed by a lava flow. Two other lava flows began from the same location (N2); one during the afternoon of 9 July that was accompanied by small landslides and another on 10 July.
Tungurahua | Ecuador | 1.467°S, 78.442°W | Elevation 5023 m
IG reported that Tungurahua had low levels of seismicity and poor viewing conditions during 24-27 June and in July during 1-9 and 14. Heavy rain during the night of 24 June and morning of 25 June generated small lahars that caused damage to the Baños- Penipe highway. During the afternoon of 28 June clear viewing conditions allowed observations of a 100-m-high white plume rising from the summit crater. Otherwise, clear conditions revealed quiescence at the summit. Heavy rain during the night of 7 July and the following morning generated lahars in the drainages of Mandur to the NW: Pondoa, Cusúa, and Pingullo. A major road was destroyed in the area of Asupashal and the flow through Juive (NW) carried blocks up to 50 cm. A small lahar on 14 July was detected in the Juive drainage after heavy rainfall during the prior evening.
Ubinas | Peru | 16.355°S, 70.903°W | Elevation 5672 m
IGP reported that the eruption of Ubinas was continuing during 12 June-10 July. During 12-30 June six explosions generated plumes 1,400-3,600 m above the crater. Volcanic tremor was associated with ash emissions during 12-21, 25, and 26 June. During 28-29 June more than 1,000 hybrid earthquakes were recorded, but volcano-tectonic earthquakes were scarce. A moderate explosion on 30 June generated an incandescent plume. After more than 50 hours of tremor, a moderate explosion occurred at 0858 on 30 June; the plume reached 1,800 m above the crater and ejected tephra 1,500 m down the NW flank.
During 30 June-10 July IGP detected five, small-sized explosions that generated plumes 400-1,500 m above the crater. Seismicity was also reduced during this period; the greatest number of hybrid earthquakes was registered on 6 July when a swarm of 115 earthquakes occurred.
Zhupanovsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 53.59°N, 159.147°E | Elevation 2958 m
KVERT reported that during 2, 5, and 9 July, moderate gas-and-steam activity was observed at Zhupanovsky. An ash plume up to 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. was observed on 9 July. Satellite data showed an ash plume extending up to 450 km E and SE of the volcano during 9-10 July. The Aviation Color Code was maintained at Orange.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ambang||Garbuna Group||Lopevi||San Vicente|
|Antuco||Great Sitkin||Makushin||Santa Ana|
|Apoyeque||Guagua Pichincha||Manda Hararo||Sarigan|
|Azul, Cerro||Home Reef||Melimoyu||Sinabung|
|Bagana||Hudson, Cerro||Metis Shoal||Sirung|
|Balbi||Huila, Nevado del||Michael||Slamet|
|Bamus||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Misti, El||Soputan|
|Bezymianny||Iliamna||Montagu Island||Soufrière Hills|
|Bulusan||Iliwerung||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Ioto||Negra, Sierra||Stromboli|
|Cereme||Izu-Torishima||Negro, Cerro||Sulu Range|
|Chachadake [Tiatia]||Kaba||Nightingale Island||Sumbing|
|Chikurachki||Karangetang [Api Siau]||NW Rota-1||Taal|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Karkar||Nyamuragira||Tair, Jebel at|
|Concepción||Katmai||Palena Volcanic Group||Tangkubanparahu|
|Descabezado Grande||Kick 'em Jenny||Pinatubo||Tofua|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kikai||Planchón-Peteroa||Tokachidake|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Kverkfjöll||Reventador||Villarrica|
|Eyjafjallajökull||Lamington||Rincón de la Vieja||West Mata|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Láscar||Rotorua||Yasur|
|Fourpeaked||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruang||Zealandia Bank|
|Fujisan||Lewotobi||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zubair Group|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
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An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)