Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information contained in these reports is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

 Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 39, Number 07 (July 2014)

Barren Island (India)

Ongoing intermittent ash plumes and thermal anomalies through June 2014

Gamkonora (Indonesia)

Phreatic eruption in January 2013 followed by elevated seismicity

Kavachi (Solomon Islands)

Plume of discolored water seen in January 2014 satellite imagery indicates probable eruption

Lengai, Ol Doinyo (Tanzania)

Lava fountaining observed from the active cone during March and July 2014

Ruiz, Nevado del (Colombia)

Frequent ash emissions during September 2012-July 2014

Barren Island


12.278°N, 93.858°E; summit elev. 354 m

All times are local

Ongoing intermittent ash plumes and thermal anomalies through June 2014

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Renewed activity at Barren Island that began in October 2013 (BGVN 38:10) continued at least through June 2014. Ongoing low-level eruptive activity was indicated by intermittent reports of ash plumes and MODIS infrared satellite observations.

Ash plumes seen in satellite imagery on 17 October 2013 corresponded to an episode of MODVOLC thermal alerts that began on 10 October (10 pixels) and continued through 23 October (table 1). Additional extended periods of eruptive activity indicated by frequent thermal alerts took place from 12-19 December 2013 and 20 January-12 February 2014. Isolated anomalies were also identified on 13 and 15 November and 1 December 2013, and 1 January, 12 March, and 20 April 2014.

Low-level ash plumes that rose to altitudes as high as ~1.5 km were reported in February 2014. Darwin VAAC reports stated that an ash plume on 6 February rose to ~1.5 km altitude and drifted more than 35 km SW. On 9 February another low-level plume rose from the vent.

Although plumes were infrequently noted on satellite imagery, the crew of the Infiniti Live Aboard dive boat noted that there was a plume visible during each of six visits to the island between January and April 2014 (figures 1 and 2).

Thermal infrared MODIS data processed by the MIROVA system, which uses middle infrared radiation to identify possible volcanic activity, revealed frequent anomalies in April through early May 2014, and in late May to early June; another anomaly was seen in mid-June 2014.

Figure 1. The Barren Island cone with a rising plume appears in the background behind a diving ship. According to Vismaya Firodia-Bakshi, the island was "smoking" all six times that the ship visited the islands between January and April 2014. Courtesy of Infiniti Live Aboard (2014).
Figure 2. Barren Island released a plume that rose a few hundred meters high in April 2014. A previous plume can be seen at left drifting downwind. Courtesy of Infiniti Live Aboard (2014).

References. Infiniti Live Aboard; 4 July 2014 (URL: http://www.infinitiliveaboard.com/blog/dive-sites-of-barren-island-7) [accessed in February 2015]

Sharma, Jayanth; 2014; Diving in the Barren Islands, Andaman; Wildlife Times (URL: http://www.wildlifetimes.com/photo-story/diving-barren-island-andamans/) [accessed in February 2015]

Geologic Background. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises from a depth of about 2250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the west, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. Historical eruptions have changed the morphology of the pyroclastic cone in the center of the caldera, and lava flows that fill much of the caldera floor have reached the sea along the western coast.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) University of Hawai'i at Manoa, 1680 East-West Road, Pacific Ocean Science & Technology (POST) Building Room 602, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA, a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) and is supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).



1.38°N, 127.53°E; summit elev. 1635 m

All times are local

Phreatic eruption in January 2013 followed by elevated seismicity

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Tremor and emissions had been reported by the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) during mid-2011 through mid-2012 (BGVN 37:04). An eruption described by PVMBG and the UN's Humanitarian Early Warning Service (HWS), a service of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), took place on 23 January 2013. PVMBG reported that it was a phreatic eruption on preceded by increased seismicity. Specifically, an increase in volcanic earthquakes (VA), followed by an increase in shallow volcanic earthquake (VB) and "tornillo-type" earthquakes.

During March-April 2013, seismic signals increased. Towards the end of March the number of VA earthquakes increased followed by an increase in VB earthquakes in late April. Harmonic tremor increased in early May. On 24 May seismicity indicative of shallow magma movement increased and diffuse white plumes reached 100-300 above the crater. On 25 May a gas plume rose from the crater. During 25-27 May denser white-to-gray plumes rose 200-500 m above the crater rim. On 27 May the Alert Level was raised to 3; residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 3 km.

PVMBG reported that the Gamsungi post observers noted diffuse white plumes rising 300 m above the crater rim during 27 May-30 June 2013. Seismicity declined overall, but a seismic crisis characterized by continuous tremor occurred on 10 June; tremor was absent during 13-30 June. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 1 July; residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 1.5 km.

Petrology of 2007 eruptive products. The 2007 eruption was andesitic in nature. The event occurred after 20 years of dormancy and prompted the evacuation of 8,000 residents living near the volcano. PVMBG scientists examining the eruption also posted deformation, petrologic, and other data. Chemical analysis showed that samples from lava tops, a lava peak, a lava dome, a pyroclastic flow, and a bomb were all andesite, with SiO2 values between 53.62 and 56.91% (by weight).

Geologic Background. The shifting of eruption centers on Gamkonora, at 1635 m the highest peak of Halmahera, has produced an elongated series of summit craters along a N-S trending rift. Youthful-looking lava flows originate near the cones of Gunung Alon and Popolojo, south of Gamkonora. Since its first recorded eruption in the 16th century, Gamkonora has typically produced small-to-moderate explosive eruptions. Its largest historical eruption, in 1673, was accompanied by tsunamis that inundated villages.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (PVMBG), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Humanitarian Early Warning Service (HEWS), a Service of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) (URL: http://www.hewsweb.org/).


Solomon Islands

9.02°S, 157.95°E; summit elev. -20 m

All times are local

Plume of discolored water seen in January 2014 satellite imagery indicates probable eruption

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The most recent previously observed eruption of Kavachi occurred during 2-6 April 2007 and consisted of vigorous upwelling, discolored water, and minor explosions (BGVN 32:02). On 29 January 2014, the NASA Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite imaged a plume of discolored water at least 5 km long streaming ESE from the submarine volcano (figure 1). The water plume, likely discolored due to dissolved volcanic gases and suspended tephra in the water, originated at the location of the volcano. Directly above the source of the discolored water, a bright patch suggests vigorously churning water, but there was no sign that an eruption had broken the ocean surface.

Figure 1. Satellite image of discolored water flowing ESE from a possible eruption of Kavachi. Note the 500 m scale bar at lower left. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory; image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using EO-1 ALI data from the NASA EO-1 team. Caption by Robert Simmon.

Geologic Background. Kavachi, one of the most active submarine volcanoes in the SW Pacific, occupies an isolated position in the Solomon Islands far from major aircraft and shipping lanes. Sometimes referred to as Rejo te Kvachi ("Kavachi's Oven"), it is located south of Vangunu Island only about 30 km N of the site of subduction of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Pacific plate. The shallow submarine basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has produced ephemeral islands up to 1 km long many times since its first recorded eruption during 1939. Residents of the nearby islands of Vanguna and Nggatokae (Gatokae) reported "fire on the water" prior to 1939, a possible reference to earlier submarine eruptions. The roughly conical edifice rises from water depths of 1.1-1.2 km on the north and greater depths to the south. Frequent shallow submarine and occasional subaerial eruptions produce phreatomagmatic explosions that eject steam, ash, and incandescent bombs above the sea surface. On a number of occasions lava flows were observed on the surface of ephemeral islands.

Information Contacts: NASA Earth Observatory (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=83025); NASA EO-1 team (URL: http://eo1.gsfc.nasa.gov/).

Ol Doinyo Lengai


2.764°S, 35.914°E; summit elev. 2962 m

All times are local

Lava fountaining observed from the active cone during March and July 2014

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Volcanism has continued at Ol Doinyo Lengai through July 2014. Though the volcano has been erupting since 1983 (with three breaks of about a year each), the currently active spatter cone within the N crater was first noted in April 2013 (BGVN 38:06). During March 2014, Ake Lindstrom observed activity in the crater and on the cracked terrain near the trail to the summit. This report also includes a description of the 4-5 July 2014 visit by a scientific team provided by Tobias Fischer. Except for the Fischer narrative, other visitor observations were abstracted from the Ol Doinyo Lengai website of Frederick Belton.

Observations in March 2014. On 12 March 2014, Ake Lindstrom of Summit Africa, a tour and climb outfitter, photographed the active N crater. Lindstrom reported that an overhang had formed on the W side of the near-vertical pit wall above the active cone (figure 1). Erosion was most noticeable where the near-vertical walls met the slope to the rim. Inside the pit, erosion appeared at the boundaries between layers. Lindstrom also noted a large crack located above the climbing route near the outside of the rim (figure 2).

Figure 1. View into the N crater at Ol Doinyo Lengai from the E rim, 12 March 2014. There is an overhang on the W side of the pit wall. Courtesy of Ake Lindstrom.
Figure 2. A large crack on the N crater rim of Ol Doinyo Lengai, 12 March 2014. The crack lies near the top of the climbing route. Courtesy of Ake Lindstrom.

Observations during July 2014. Tobias Fischer and a team consisting of Hyunwoo Lee, Nicole Thomas (University of New Mexico), James Muirhead (University of Idaho), Melania D. Maqway (University of Dar Es Salaam), and Steve Goldstein and Kerstin Lehnert (LDEO/Columbia University), visited the volcano during 4-5 July 2014. They observed lava fountaining, and cracks near the rim contained sloshing lava and emitted gases. The cracks, eruptive vigor, and other features suggested instability of the N crater and a resulting risk to climbers. The crater was observed from a portion of the W rim where there was a narrow (80 cm) path (figure 3). Ash and bombs dating from 2007 and more recent eruptions were abundant on and in the the N crater ash cone.

Figure 3. The N portion of the Ol Doinyo Lengai pit crater, 4-5 July 2014. On the left side of the photo, to the left of the first rise, are several members of the Fisher team. The crater walls extend to ~80 deep. Courtesy of T. Fischer.

Erosional rills extended from the rim down the ~60-degree slope to the vertical wall drop off. Outside the crater, ~30 m below the rim near the ascent trail, a ~30 meter long by 1-m-wide crack ran upslope. Gases and traces of sulfur deposits were observed along the crack, and lava was heard sloshing within it. Importantly, the activity eroded or dissolved the pit crater wall directly below the crack on the outside of the rim. Lava was observed ponding inside the cone and sporadic fountaining from at the ~30 m high cone located on the NW side of the N crater (figure 4). Fountaining lasted about 15 minutes between approximately 10-minute quiescent intervals.

Figure 4. Fresh carbonatite lava flows can be seen on the cone in the NW part of Ol Doinyo Lengai's crater. Fisher noted that the lava ponded and sporadically fountained. Courtesy of T. Fisher.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent stratovolcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The cone-building stage ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra ejections and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater and occasionally down the upper flanks. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep crater walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

Information Contacts: Ake Lindstrom, Summits Africa general manager (Email: ake@summits-africa.com); Tobias Fischer, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA (Email: fischer@unm.edu); Frederick A. Belton, University Studies Department, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN (Email: Fred.Belton@mtsu.edu, URL:http://www.oldoinyolengai.pbworks.com).

Nevado del Ruiz


4.892°N, 75.324°W; summit elev. 5279 m

All times are local

Frequent ash emissions during September 2012-July 2014

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During September 2012-July 2014 the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) maintained Alert Level Yellow at Nevado del Ruiz due to elevated SO2 flux, seismicity, and intermittent ash emissions; the Alert Level had been lowered to Yellow on 5 September. No major geophysical changes were noted during this time period.

Gas plumes were frequently visible rising as high as 3,500 m above the summit (figure 1). Minor gas-and-ash plumes occasionally occurred throughout this reporting period, and were often associated with episodes of tremor. Ashfall was reported from areas around the volcano (figure 2), notably on 11 July 2013 when ash reached Manizales (~30 km NW). The Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reported ash plumes visible in satellite images on 10 October 2012 (reaching ~7 km altitude) and 11 July 2013 (reaching ~6 km altitude). A possible ash plume was detected at ~7.6 km altitude on 16 June 2013.

Figure 1. Webcamera image of Nevado del Ruiz taken at 0648 on 3 April 2014. The camera location is ~6 km NE of Arenas crater (Piraña station). White gas plumes frequently rose to 750-3,500 m above the crater rim. Courtesy of SGC.
Figure 2. Persistent ashfall challenged the local monitoring systems for Nevado del Ruiz in September 2012. These two stations, a ScanDOAS station Bruma/Azufrado (left) and the GPS station at Gualí (right), were the focus of fieldwork by SGC staff in September. Courtesy of SGC.

SGC reported continuous and elevated SO2 emissions during this reporting period. Gas monitoring included satellite images, field installations (ScanDOAS), and MobileDOAS. ScanDOAS values captured the dramatic increase in SO2 flux during the explosive eruptions of early 2012 (BGVN 37:08). Since September 2012, the maximum daily average frequently exceeded 6,000 tons per day and exceeded 9,500 tons/day three times: twice in June 2013 and once in July 2014. MobileDOAS measurements were collected by the SGC during field campaigns and the values are reported in monthly technical bulletins available online (in Spanish).

Seismicity. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes (VT), long-period earthquakes (LP), and tremor were detected by the monitoring network throughout this reporting period. Earthquakes were detected from the summit glaciers, as well, notably in February 2014. Increased VT seismicity was notable during October 2012 (figure 3), 23-24 February 2013, 13 April-4 May 2013, 5-10 October 2013, 18-27 June 2014, and 29 July 2014 (figure 4). Maximum local magnitudes of VT earthquakes in the range of 1.6-4.4 were detected during this time period at depths of 0.5-13 km.

Figure 3. Seismicity from Nevado del Ruiz during October 2012 was elevated; 2,179 VT earthquakes were located. Two main areas of concentration were located N and NE of the summit (circled in red). Black squares are seismic stations; color coding refers to depth; circle size correlates with earthquake magnitudes. Courtesy of SGC.
Figure 4. Elevated seismicity from Nevado del Ruiz on 29 July 2014 consisted of 746 VT earthquakes detected in a zone ~2 km long SSW of the main crater, Arenas. Red lines correspond to local faults as well as Palestina, the regional, cross-cutting fault trending NE-SW. Depths of earthquakes are correlated to colors in the key as well as magnitudes based on circle size. Courtesy of SGC.

Geologic Background. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers >200 sq km. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the caldera of an older edifice. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone located on the SW flank may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.

Information Contacts: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), Volcanological and Seismological Observatory, Avenida 12 Octubre 15-47, Manizales, Colombia (URL: http://www.ingeominas.gov.co/Manizales.aspx); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS E/SP23, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/).

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 Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

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 Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

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 Additional Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

Africa (northeastern) and Red Sea

False Report of Somalia Eruption

Africa (eastern)

False Report of Elgon Eruption

Kermadec Islands

Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion

Tonga Islands

Floating Pumice (Tonga)

Fiji Islands

Floating Pumice (Fiji)

New Britain


Andaman Islands

False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions

Sangihe Islands

1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake

Kawio Barat


False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

Southeast Asia

Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong

Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu

Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)

Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands

Mikura Seamount

Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source

Kuril Islands

Possible 1988 Eruption Plume



Aleutian Islands

Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


False Report of New Volcano




La Lorenza Mud Volcano



Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)

False Report of Submarine Volcanism

Central Chile and Argentina

Estero de Parraguirre

West Indies

Mid-Cayman Spreading Center

Atlantic Ocean (northern)

Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone

Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands

Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge

 Special Announcements

Special Announcement Reports