The launch of a new GVP website is scheduled for Monday, May 20, 2013.
| Nevado del Huila, Colombia
| Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia
| Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island
| Planchón-Peteroa, Central Chile-Argentina border
| Reventador, Ecuador
Ongoing Activity: | Bagana, Bougainville | Batu Tara, Komba Island (Indonesia) | Dukono, Halmahera | Fuego, Guatemala | Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | Kilauea, Hawaii (USA) | Kliuchevskoi, Central Kamchatka (Russia) | Pacaya, Guatemala | Popocatépetl, México | Sakura-jima, Kyushu | Sarychev Peak, Matua Island | Shiveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia) | Soufrière Hills, Montserrat | Suwanose-jima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
Note: Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
NEVADO DEL HUILA Colombia 2.93°N, 76.03°W; summit elev. 5364 m
The Popayán Volcano Observatory (INGEOMINAS) reported that during 29 September-5 October gas plumes from Nevado del Huila, observed with the Tafxnú and Maravillas web cameras, rose 2.5 km above the summit. Incandescence from the extruding lava dome and collapsing material was also noted. Based on a SIGMET issued from the Bogota MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 1 October an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Later that day, a 10-km-wide gas-and-ash plume was seen in satellite imagery drifting about 30 km S. The Alert Level remained at II (Orange; "probable eruption in term of days or weeks").
Geologic Summary. Nevado del Huila, the highest active volcano in Colombia, is an elongated N-S-trending volcanic chain mantled by a glacier icecap. The andesitic-dacitic volcano was constructed within a 10-km-wide caldera. Volcanism at Nevado del Huila has produced six volcanic cones whose ages in general migrated from south to north. Two glacier-free lava domes lie at the southern end of the Huila volcanic complex. The first historical eruption from this little known volcano took place in the 16th century. Two persistent steam columns rise from the central peak, and hot springs are also present.
Nevado del Huila Information from the Global Volcanism Program
NEVADO DEL RUIZ Colombia 4.895°N, 75.322°W; summit elev. 5321 m
INGEOMINAS reported a gradual increase in seismicity from Nevado del Ruiz on 30 September. Earthquakes were located beneath the Arenas crater at depths of 0.5-2 km. The largest earthquake was M 1.9. A plume of white gas rose 700 m above the caldera and a sulfur odor around the volcano was reported. The Alert Level was raised to III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity") on 1 October. The report also noted changes in deformation and geochemistry during the previous few months. Seismic levels fluctuated during 2-3 October.
Geologic Summary. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers >200 sq km. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the summit caldera of an older Ruiz volcano. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks of Nevado del Ruiz. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.
Nevado del Ruiz Information from the Global Volcanism Program
PITON DE LA FOURNAISE Reunion Island 21.231°S, 55.713°E; summit elev. 2632 m
OVPDLF reported that on 29 September seismicity from Piton de la Fournaise remained high. Earthquakes were located at the base of the volcano, and inflation was noted particularly in the E. A significant number of landslides were detected in the crater. The Alert level remained at 1 ("probable or imminent eruption").
Geologic Summary. Massive Piton de la Fournaise shield volcano on the island of Réunion is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of a 400-m-high lava shield, Dolomieu, that has grown within the youngest of three large calderas. This depression is 8 km wide and is breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows within the caldera, have been documented since the 17th century. The volcano is monitored by the Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory, one of several operated by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris.
Piton de la Fournaise Information from the Global Volcanism Program
PLANCHON-PETEROA Central Chile-Argentina border 35.240°S, 70.570°W; summit elev. 4107 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, pilot observations, and SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 30 September-3 October ash plumes from Planchón-Peteroa rose to altitudes of 3-6.1 km (10,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, NNE, E, and SE.
Geologic Summary. Planchón-Peteroa is an elongated complex volcano along the Chile-Argentina border with several overlapping calderas. Activity began in the Pleistocene with construction of the basaltic-andesite to dacitic Volcán Azufre, followed by formation of basaltic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Planchón, 6 km to the N. About 11,500 years ago, much of Azufre and part of Planchón collapsed, forming the massive Río Teno debris avalanche, which reached Chile's Central Valley. Subsequently, Volcán Planchón II was formed. The youngest volcano, andesitic and basaltic-andesite Volcá Peteroa, consists of scattered vents between Azufre and Planchón. Peteroa has been active into historical time and contains a small steaming crater lake. Historical eruptions from the Planchón-Peteroa complex have been dominantly explosive, although lava flows were erupted in 1837 and 1937.
Planchón-Peteroa Information from the Global Volcanism Program
REVENTADOR Ecuador 0.077°S, 77.656°W; summit elev. 3562 m
According to the Washington VAAC, the IG reported ash over Reventador on 30 September. The VAAC stated that a diffuse plume was observed in satellite imagery drifting NW, although ash was not identified.
Geologic Summary. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera.
Reventador Information from the Global Volcanism Program
BAGANA Bougainville 6.140°S, 155.195°E; summit elev. 1750 m
Geologic Summary. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. Bagana is a massive symmetrical lava cone largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire lava cone could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity at Bagana is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides.
Bagana Information from the Global Volcanism Program
BATU TARA Komba Island (Indonesia) 7.792°S, 123.579°E; summit elev. 748 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 September-5 October ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-95 km W and NW.
Geologic Summary. The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The first historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow.
Batu Tara Information from the Global Volcanism Program
DUKONO Halmahera 1.68°N, 127.88°E; summit elev. 1335 m
Geologic Summary. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the N-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.
Dukono Information from the Global Volcanism Program
FUEGO Guatemala 14.473°N, 90.880°W; summit elev. 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that on 2 October a seismic station near Fuego recorded some explosions and a possible lahar that traveled SE. Weather prevented visual observations. During 4-5 October, explosions ejected incandescent material above the crater and produced ash plumes that rose 500-700 m above the crater.
Geologic Summary. Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3,763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the N, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, after which growth of the modern Fuego volcano continued the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.
Fuego Information from the Global Volcanism Program
KARYMSKY Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 54.05°N, 159.45°E; summit elev. 1536 m
KVERT reported that seismic activity from Karymsky was at background levels during 22-24 September and above background levels during 25-29 September. The elevated seismicity suggested that ash explosions had occurred. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-4.5 km (9,800-14,800 ft) a.s.l. during 25-27 September. Thermal anomalies were seen in satellite imagery on 23, 25, and 28 September, and ash plumes drifted 83 km SE on 28 September. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.
Geologic Summary. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed about 7,600-7,700 radiocarbon years ago. Construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2,000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2,300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been Vulcanian or Vulcanian-Strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions has originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately S of Karymsky volcano and erupted simultaneously with Karymsky in 1996.
Karymsky Information from the Global Volcanism Program
KILAUEA Hawaii (USA) 19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
During 29 September-5 October, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at about 150 m below the crater floor; periodically the lava rose 15-35 m above that level. Glow from the vent was also visible at night. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW and deposited ash nearby.
At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system mainly fed the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. A lava flow that broke out of the lava-tube system W of the end of Highway 130 on 26 September produced a flow E toward Kalapana Gardens that stalled on 28 September. Two days later a new breakout lava flow began near the end of Highway 130, just west of Kalapana Gardens subdivision. The flow sparked fires in a small, sparsely forested kipuka, and remained active through 4 October.
During 29 September-4 October, incandescence was visible from a skylight on the lava tube downslope from the rootless shield complex. A large skylight on top of a rootless shield, built over the TEB lava tube mid-way between the top of the pali and the TEB vent, also showed incandescence. On 29 September, lava began to erupt from a vent on the NW edge of Pu'u 'O'o crater and flowed E across the floor. The lava flow in Pu'u 'O'o crater continued to be active through the reporting period.
Geologic Summary. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the island of Hawaii, is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Eruptions at Kilauea originate primarily from the summit caldera or along one of the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea. About 90% of the surface of Kilauea is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.
Kilauea Information from the Global Volcanism Program
KLIUCHEVSKOI Central Kamchatka (Russia) 56.057°N, 160.638°E; summit elev. 4835 m
KVERT reported that during 24 September-1 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava from the summit crater flowed down the SW flank. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. Ash plumes were seen rising to altitudes of 6.5-7 km (21,300-23,000 ft) a.s.l. on 22 and 24 September, and Strombolian activity was observed during 23, 25, and 28-29 September. Ash plumes seen in satellite imagery drifted 185 km E on 22 and 28 September and 78 km W on 24 and 25 September. KVERT noted that eruptive activity from Kliuchevskoi had been continuous since 1 September 2009. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.
Geologic Summary. Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 7,000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4,835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. More than 100 flank eruptions, mostly on the NE and SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3,600 m elevation, have occurred during the past 3,000 years. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included major explosive and effusive events from flank craters.
Kliuchevskoi Information from the Global Volcanism Program
PACAYA Guatemala 14.381°N, 90.601°W; summit elev. 2552 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 2 and 4-5 October steam-and-gas plumes rose from Pacaya's MacKenney cone and drifted S.
Geologic Summary. Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex volcano constructed on the southern rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlan caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the caldera floor. The Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1,100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent Strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion on the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions.
Pacaya Information from the Global Volcanism Program
POPOCATEPETL México 19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5426 m
CENAPRED reported that during 30 September-4 October steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl occasionally contained small amounts of ash.
Geologic Summary. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City and is North America's second-highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages.
Popocatépetl Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SAKURA-JIMA Kyushu 31.585°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m
Geologic Summary. Sakura-jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.
Sakura-jima Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SARYCHEV PEAK Matua Island 48.092°N, 153.20°E; summit elev. 1496 m
SVERT reported that a diffuse ash plume from Sarychev Peak was detected by satellite on 20 September. Sarychev Peak does not have a seismic network; satellite image observations are the primary tool for monitoring many of the Kurile Islands volcanoes.
Geologic Summary. Sarychev Peak, one of the most active volcanoes of the Kuril Islands, occupies the NW end of Matua Island in the central Kuriles. The andesitic central cone was constructed within a 3-3.5 km wide caldera, whose rim is exposed only on the SW side. A dramatic 250-m-wide, very steep-walled crater with a jagged rim caps the volcano. The substantially higher SE rim forms the 1496 m high point of the island. Fresh-looking lava flows descend all sides of Sarychev Peak and often form capes along the coast. Much of the lower-angle outer flanks of the volcano are overlain by pyroclastic-flow deposits. Eruptions have been recorded since the 1760's and include both quiet lava effusion and violent explosions. The largest historical eruption of Sarychev Peak in 1946 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the sea.
Sarychev Peak Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SHIVELUCH Central Kamchatka (Russia) 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev. 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 24 September-1 October seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels and suggested that possible ash plumes rose from the volcano. Gas-and-steam plumes were observed during 23, 25, and 28-29 September. Satellite imagery analyses showed a daily thermal anomaly on the volcano and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted 70 km SE on 29 September. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported a possible eruption on 3 October; a subsequent notice stated that ash had dissipated. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.
Geologic Summary. The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group and forms one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. The currently active Molodoy Shiveluch lava-dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within a large breached caldera formed by collapse of the massive late-Pleistocene Strary Shiveluch volcano. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Frequent collapses of lava-dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced large debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera. Intermittent explosive eruptions began in the 1990s from a new lava dome that began growing in 1980. The largest historical eruptions from Shiveluch occurred in 1854 and 1964.
Shiveluch Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SOUFRIERE HILLS Montserrat 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 915 m
MVO reported that during 24 September-1 October activity from the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. Several pyroclastic flows originating from the W side of the lava dome moved W down Gages Valley and into Spring Ghaut. The largest pyroclastic flow traveled approximately 2 km. The Hazard Level remained at 3.
Geologic Summary. The complex dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the E, was formed during an eruption about 4,000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.
Soufrière Hills Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SUWANOSE-JIMA Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 29.635°N, 129.716°E; summit elev. 799 m
Geologic Summary. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-jima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. Only about 50 persons live on the sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanose-jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.
Suwanose-jima Information from the Global Volcanism Program
Additional Reports of Volcanic Activity by Country
The following websites have frequently updated activity reports on volcanoes in addition to those that meet the criteria for inclusion in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report. The websites are organized by country and are maintained by various agencies.