The launch of a new GVP website is scheduled for Monday, May 20, 2013.
| Langila, New Britain
| Mayon, Luzon
| Shiveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia)
Ongoing Activity: | Bagana, Bougainville | Barren Island, Andaman Islands | Batu Tara, Komba Island (Indonesia) | Chaitén, Southern Chile | Dukono, Halmahera | Fuego, Guatemala | Kilauea, Hawaii (USA) | Pacaya, Guatemala | Popocatépetl, México | Rabaul, New Britain | Sakura-jima, Kyushu | Santa María, Guatemala | Slamet, Central Java (Indonesia) | Suwanose-jima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
Note: Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
LANGILA New Britain 5.525°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1330 m
Geologic Summary. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the N and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.
Langila Information from the Global Volcanism Program
MAYON Luzon 13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev. 2462 m
PHIVOLCS reported that 11 earthquakes from Mayon were detected during 14-15 September. Steam plumes drifted NW and ENE and the sulfur dioxide gas output decreased. Faint incandescence was observed at night. On 15 September, three ash explosions produced a brownish plume that rose no more than 700 m above the crater and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). The 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank and the 6-km Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) in all other areas remained in effect.
Geologic Summary. Beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2,462 m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes that average 35-40° and is capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1,200 people and devastated several towns. Eruptions that began in February 2000 led PHIVOLCS to recommend on 23 February 2000 the evacuation of people within a radius of 7 km from the summit in the SE and within a 6 km radius for the rest of the volcano.
Mayon Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SHIVELUCH Central Kamchatka (Russia) 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev. 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 4-11 September seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels. Analyses of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly over the lava dome. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes possibly rose to an altitude of 4.2 km (13,800 ft) a.s.l. and hot avalanches occurred at the lava dome. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. during 4-9 September. An ash plume was seen in satellite imagery drifting 80 km E on 8 September.
On 11 September, KVERT reported strong explosions. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes rose to an altitude greater than 15 km (49,200 ft) a.s.l. The seismic network then detected eight minutes of pyroclastic flows from the lava dome; resulting plumes rose to an altitude of approximately 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code level was raised to Red. Ten more events characterized as ash explosions and either pyroclastic flows or avalanches were detected. Cloud cover prevented visual observations. Seismicity decreased during 11-12 September, and indicated that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.5-6.5 km (14,800-21,300 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code level was lowered to Orange.
Geologic Summary. The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group and forms one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. The currently active Molodoy Shiveluch lava-dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within a large breached caldera formed by collapse of the massive late-Pleistocene Strary Shiveluch volcano. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Frequent collapses of lava-dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced large debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera. Intermittent explosive eruptions began in the 1990s from a new lava dome that began growing in 1980. The largest historical eruptions from Shiveluch occurred in 1854 and 1964.
Shiveluch Information from the Global Volcanism Program
BAGANA Bougainville 6.140°S, 155.195°E; summit elev. 1750 m
Geologic Summary. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. Bagana is a massive symmetrical lava cone largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire lava cone could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity at Bagana is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides.
Bagana Information from the Global Volcanism Program
BARREN ISLAND Andaman Islands 12.278°N, 93.858°E; summit elev. 354 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 September ash plumes from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 20-100 km W and NE.
Geologic Summary. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of volcano that rises from a depth of about 2,250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the W, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the center of the caldera has varied during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during historical eruptions.
Barren Island Information from the Global Volcanism Program
BATU TARA Komba Island (Indonesia) 7.792°S, 123.579°E; summit elev. 748 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-11 and 14-15 September ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 1.5 m (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-45 km W and NW.
Geologic Summary. The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The first historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow.
Batu Tara Information from the Global Volcanism Program
CHAITEN Southern Chile 42.833°S, 72.646°W; summit elev. 1122 m
Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 15 September a diffuse ash plume from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex, possibly mixed with steam and gas, rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted NE and SE.
Geologic Summary. Chaitén is a small, glacier-free caldera with a Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. A pyroclastic-surge and pumice layer that was considered to originate from the eruption that formed the elliptical 2.5 x 4 km wide summit caldera was dated at about 9400 years ago. A rhyolitic, 962-m-high obsidian lava dome occupies much of the caldera floor. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km away from the volcano to the north and south. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaitén, and the high point on its southern rim reaches 1122 m. Two small lakes occupy the caldera floor on the west and north sides of the lava dome. The first historical eruption of Chaitén volcano in 2008 produced major rhyolitic explosive activity and growth of a lava dome that filled much of the caldera.
Chaitén Information from the Global Volcanism Program
DUKONO Halmahera 1.68°N, 127.88°E; summit elev. 1335 m
Geologic Summary. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the N-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.
Dukono Information from the Global Volcanism Program
FUEGO Guatemala 14.473°N, 90.880°W; summit elev. 3763 m
On 10 and 14 September, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.1-4.7 km (13,500-15,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far away as 10 km W, SW, and S. Some explosions were accompanied by rumbling noises and shock waves. Incandescent material was ejected 100 m high and avalanches descended multiple ravines.
Geologic Summary. Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3,763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the N, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, after which growth of the modern Fuego volcano continued the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.
Fuego Information from the Global Volcanism Program
KILAUEA Hawaii (USA) 19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
During 9-15 September, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Weak, sporadic explosions from the ocean entry were seen on 10 September. Occasional thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows.
The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. The plume briefly turned brown on 9 September from a rockfall. Small amounts of ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. Incandescence from small openings in the floor of the vent, about 200 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor, was visible at night with varying intensity. During the night from 12 to13 September, spattering from the opening was seen on the web camera. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 900 tonnes per day was measured on 11 September. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.
Geologic Summary. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the island of Hawaii, is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Eruptions at Kilauea originate primarily from the summit caldera or along one of the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea. About 90% of the surface of Kilauea is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.
Kilauea Information from the Global Volcanism Program
PACAYA Guatemala 14.381°N, 90.601°W; summit elev. 2552 m
Geologic Summary. Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. Pacaya is a complex volcano constructed on the southern rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlan caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the caldera floor. The Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW. Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1,100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent Strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion on the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions.
Pacaya Information from the Global Volcanism Program
POPOCATEPETL México 19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5426 m
CENAPRED reported that during 10-14 September emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl contained slight amounts of ash.
Geologic Summary. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City and is North America's second-highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages.
Popocatépetl Information from the Global Volcanism Program
RABAUL New Britain 4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m
RVO reported that during 4-10 September gray ash and white plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1.5 km above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night, and incandescent lava fragments were ejected from the crater. Rumbling and roaring noises were reported. Several large explosions occurred during an eight-hour period one unspecified evening. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 and 15 September ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-130 km N and NW.
Geologic Summary. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the E, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay. Two major Holocene caldera-forming eruptions at Rabaul took place as recently as 3,500 and 1,400 years ago. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.
Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Rabaul Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SAKURA-JIMA Kyushu 31.585°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m
Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 9-15 September produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E.
Geologic Summary. Sakura-jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.
Sakura-jima Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SANTA MARIA Guatemala 14.756°N, 91.552°W; summit elev. 3772 m
On 14 September, INSIVUMEH reported that an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted SW and cause ashfall downwind. Avalanches descended the SW flank of the dome.
Geologic Summary. Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1-km-wide crater, which formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902 and extends from just below the summit to the lower flank. The renowned Plinian eruption of 1902 followed a long repose period and devastated much of SW Guatemala. The large dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions and periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.
Santa María Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SLAMET Central Java (Indonesia) 7.242°S, 109.208°E; summit elev. 3428 m
Geologic Summary. Slamet, Java's second highest volcano at 3428 m and one of its most active, has a cluster of about three dozen cinder cones on its lower SE-NE flanks and a single cinder cone on the western flank. Slamet is composed of two overlapping edifices, an older basaltic-andesite to andesitic volcano on the west and a younger basaltic to basaltic-andesite one on the east. Gunung Malang II cinder cone on the upper eastern flank on the younger edifice fed a lava flow that extends 6 km to the east. Four craters occur at the summit of Gunung Slamet, with activity migrating to the SW over time. Historical eruptions, recorded since the 18th century, have originated from a 150-m-deep, 450-m-wide, steep-walled crater at the western part of the summit and have consisted of explosive eruptions generally lasting a few days to a few weeks.
Slamet Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SUWANOSE-JIMA Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 29.635°N, 129.716°E; summit elev. 799 m
Geologic Summary. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanose-jima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. Only about 50 persons live on the sparsely populated island. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanose-jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.
Suwanose-jima Information from the Global Volcanism Program
Additional Reports of Volcanic Activity by Country
The following websites have frequently updated activity reports on volcanoes in addition to those that meet the criteria for inclusion in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report. The websites are organized by country and are maintained by various agencies.