The launch of a new GVP website is scheduled for Monday, May 20, 2013.
| Asama, Honshu
| Ebeko, Paramushir Island
| Galeras, Colombia
| Redoubt, Southwestern Alaska
Ongoing Activity: | Arenal, Costa Rica | Dukono, Halmahera | Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | Kilauea, Hawaii (USA) | Popocatépetl, México | Rabaul, New Britain | Sakura-jima, Kyushu | Santa María, Guatemala | Shishaldin, Fox Islands | Shiveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia) | Soufrière Hills, Montserrat | Tungurahua, Ecuador | Ubinas, Perú
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
Note: Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
ASAMA Honshu 36.403°N, 138.526°E; summit elev. 2568 m
Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-12 February eruptions from Asama produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. JMA reported that on 16 and 17 February eruptions produced colored plumes containing ash that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Incandescence in the crater was seen on web cameras.
Geologic Summary. Asama, Honshu's most active volcano, is located at the junction of the Izu-Marianas and NE Japan arcs and has an historical record dating back at least to the 11th century. The modern cone of Maekake-yama is situated E of the horseshoe-shaped remnant of an older andesitic volcano, Kurofu-yama, which was destroyed by a late-Pleistocene landslide about 20,000 years before present (BP). Growth of a dacitic and rhyolitic lava cone was accompanied by pumiceous pyroclastic flows, the largest of which occurred about 14,000-11,000 years BP, and by growth of the Ko-Asama-yama lava dome on the E flank. Maekake-yama is probably only a few thousand years old, but has had several major Plinian eruptions, the last two of which occurred in 1108 and 1783 AD.
Asama Information from the Global Volcanism Program
EBEKO Paramushir Island 50.68°N, 156.02°E; summit elev. 1156 m
Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 11 February an ash plume drifted NE from Ebeko at an altitude of 0.6 km (2,000 ft) a.s.l. On 17 February, an ash plume drifted SW at an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l.
Geologic Summary. The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. The eastern part of the southern crater of Ebeko contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater of Ebeko is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters of Ebeko, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.
Ebeko Information from the Global Volcanism Program
GALERAS Colombia 1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4276 m
INGEOMINAS reported an explosive eruption from Galeras that began at 1910 on 14 February; the Alert Level was raised from III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity") to I (Red; "imminent eruption or in progress"), on a scale of 4-1. An accompanying shock wave was detected in multiple areas, including in parts of Pasto (about 10 km E). The altitude of the resultant ash plume was not known nor observed on satellite images due to cloud cover. From about 1930 until 2030 ashfall, rain, and an odor of sulfur gas were reported on the slopes of the volcano as well as in Pasto. Ash deposits were mainly in areas to the E and as far away as 25 km. Seismicity returned at 1950 to similar levels recorded prior to the eruption and remained low. On 16 February, the Alert Level was lowered to II (Orange; "probable eruption in term of days or weeks"). During 16-17 February, small steam plumes rose to altitudes of 4.6-6.7 km (15,100-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE.
According to news articles, authorities ordered the evacuation of about 8,000 people living on the slopes, but few went to evacuation shelters.
Geologic Summary. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately W of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic Galeras volcanic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Longterm extensive hydrothermal alteration has affected the volcano. This has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse that has occurred on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the W and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.
Galeras Information from the Global Volcanism Program
REDOUBT Southwestern Alaska 60.485°N, 152.742°W; summit elev. 3108 m
AVO reported that during 10-17 February seismic activity at Redoubt was variable but remained elevated above background levels. Web camera views were often obscured by snow, clouds, or ice on the camera housing. On 10 February, scientists noted that the outflow stream on the W side of Drift Glacier was frozen.
Geologic Summary. Redoubt is a 3108-m-high glacier-covered stratovolcano with a breached summit crater in Lake Clark National Park about 170 km SW of Anchorage. Next to Mount Spurr, Redoubt has been the most active Holocene volcano in the upper Cook Inlet. Collapse of the summit of Redoubt 10,500-13,000 years ago produced a major debris avalanche that reached Cook Inlet. Holocene activity has included the emplacement of a large debris avalanche and clay-rich lahars that dammed Lake Crescent on the south side and reached Cook Inlet about 3500 years ago. Eruptions during the past few centuries have affected only the Drift River drainage on the north. Historical eruptions have originated from a vent at the north end of the 1.8-km-wide breached summit crater. The 1989-90 eruption of Redoubt had severe economic impact on the Cook Inlet region and affected air traffic far beyond the volcano.
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Redoubt Information from the Global Volcanism Program
ARENAL Costa Rica 10.463°N, 84.703°W; summit elev. 1670 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that during January, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts that traveled down the SW flanks. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.
Geologic Summary. Conical Volcan Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1,657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7,000 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.
Arenal Information from the Global Volcanism Program
DUKONO Halmahera 1.68°N, 127.88°E; summit elev. 1335 m
Geologic Summary. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the N-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.
Dukono Information from the Global Volcanism Program
KARYMSKY Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 54.05°N, 159.45°E; summit elev. 1536 m
KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was above background levels during 6-9 February and at background levels during 10-13 February. Ash explosions produced plumes that rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. Clouds prevented satellite observations. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.
Geologic Summary. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed about 7,600-7,700 radiocarbon years ago. Construction of the Karymsky stratovolcano began about 2,000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2,300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been Vulcanian or Vulcanian-Strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions has originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, which is located immediately S of Karymsky volcano and erupted simultaneously with Karymsky in 1996.
Karymsky Information from the Global Volcanism Program
KILAUEA Hawaii (USA) 19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
HVO reported that during 11-17 February lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Waha'ula ocean entries. On most days, multiple explosions and spatter at the ocean entry were seen. On 11 February, geologists found a new littoral cone, on the edge of the bench, with a large crack running through it. Spatter on the cone and the bench behind it resulted from lava bubble bursts and steam jetting reported during the previous two days. A second crack between the cone and the sea cliff was also noted. The cracks suggested that the bench was slowly failing and did not collapse as reported a few days prior. Occasional incandescence originated from the Prince lobe, the flow that feeds the Waha'ula ocean entry. Thermal anomalies suggesting surface flows were noted on the coastal plain and on the pali.
The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. Small amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair and some spatter, were routinely collected. Infrared images taken during an overflight on 11 February revealed the development of a small spattering cone over the conduit that hosted a lava pond the previous week. Images taken on 14 February indicated that the conduit had mostly crusted over; a small, puffing vent was visible. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 800 tonnes per day on 12 February, and 500 tonnes on 13 February; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.
Geologic Summary. Kilauea, one of five coalescing volcanoes that comprise the island of Hawaii, is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Eruptions at Kilauea originate primarily from the summit caldera or along one of the lengthy E and SW rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea. About 90% of the surface of Kilauea is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.
Kilauea Information from the Global Volcanism Program
POPOCATEPETL México 19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5426 m
CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 11-17 February; the plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash. On 13 February, a plume with low ash content rose to an altitude of 7.2 km (23,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE at 2230; 95 minutes of increased seismicity followed.
Geologic Summary. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City and is North America's second-highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages.
Popocatépetl Information from the Global Volcanism Program
RABAUL New Britain 4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m
Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 February ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and W. On 17 February, a low-level ash plume drifted SE.
Geologic Summary. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the E, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay. Two major Holocene caldera-forming eruptions at Rabaul took place as recently as 3,500 and 1,400 years ago. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.
Rabaul Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SAKURA-JIMA Kyushu 31.585°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m
Geologic Summary. Sakura-jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.
Sakura-jima Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SANTA MARIA Guatemala 14.756°N, 91.552°W; summit elev. 3772 m
Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 12 February ash puffs from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted WSW and W. On 16 and 17 February, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.7-3.3 km (8,900-10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Small pyroclastic flows on 16 February descended the SE flank and reached the Nima I river. On 17 February, incandescent avalanches were noted and fumarolic plumes drifted SW.
Geologic Summary. Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1-km-wide crater, which formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902 and extends from just below the summit to the lower flank. The renowned Plinian eruption of 1902 followed a long repose period and devastated much of SW Guatemala. The large dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions and periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.
Santa María Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SHISHALDIN Fox Islands 54.756°N, 163.97°W; summit elev. 2857 m
AVO reported that seismic activity from Shishaldin had returned to background levels in December 2008 and remained low. On 3 February, a weak thermal anomaly was detected on satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal on 11 February.
Geologic Summary. The beautifully symmetrical volcano of Shishaldin is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands. The 2,857-m-high, glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, Shishaldin is Holocene in age and largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the W and NE sides at 1,500-1,800 m elevation. Shishaldin contains over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of Strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, sometimes producing lava flows, have been recorded since the 18th century.
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Shishaldin Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SHIVELUCH Central Kamchatka (Russia) 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev. 3283 m
KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was above background levels during 6-13 February. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes likely rose to altitudes of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. Lava flows continued to be active on the S and N flanks. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly on the lava dome during 6 and 8-10 February; clouds prevented observations on the other days during the reporting period. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.
Geologic Summary. The high, isolated massif of Shiveluch volcano (also spelled Sheveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group and forms one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanoes. The currently active Molodoy Shiveluch lava-dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within a large breached caldera formed by collapse of the massive late-Pleistocene Strary Shiveluch volcano. At least 60 large eruptions of Shiveluch have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Frequent collapses of lava-dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced large debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera. Intermittent explosive eruptions began in the 1990s from a new lava dome that began growing in 1980. The largest historical eruptions from Shiveluch occurred in 1854 and 1964.
Shiveluch Information from the Global Volcanism Program
SOUFRIERE HILLS Montserrat 16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 915 m
MVO reported that during 6-13 February activity from the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. Two rockfalls were detected and seismicity was low. On 13 February, one small pyroclastic flow that originated in a gully on the N side of the lava dome traveled less than 1 km. The Hazard Level remained at 4.
Geologic Summary. The complex dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the E, was formed during an eruption about 4,000 years ago in which the summit collapsed, producing a large submarine debris avalanche. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits at Soufrière Hills. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but with the exception of a 17th-century eruption that produced the Castle Peak lava dome, no historical eruptions were recorded on Montserrat until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.
Soufrière Hills Information from the Global Volcanism Program
TUNGURAHUA Ecuador 1.467°S, 78.442°W; summit elev. 5023 m
The IG reported that although visual observations of Tungurahua were occasionally limited due to cloud cover; gas-and-ash plumes were seen and rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.5 km (18,000-24,600 ft) a.s.l. during 11-17 February. Plumes drifted W, NE, E, and SE. On 11 February, small lahars descended multiple gorges to the NW and S. Incandescence in the crater was seen at night on 11 and 12 February, and roaring was heard on 12 and 16 February. Ashfall was reported in areas to the SW on 12 February and to the N on 14 February. An explosion on 16 February that vibrated windows was followed by ash emissions that generated a plume to an altitude of 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted W.
Geologic Summary. The steep-sided Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador's capital city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano.
Tungurahua Information from the Global Volcanism Program
UBINAS Perú 16.355°S, 70.903°W; summit elev. 5672 m
INGEMMET reported that although cloud cover occasionally prevented visual observations of Ubinas, steam and steam-and-ash plumes were seen during 11-16 February and rose to altitudes of 5.7-6.5 km (18,700-21,300 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted NE, N, W, and SW.
Geologic Summary. A small, 1.2-km-wide caldera that cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, gives it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Peru. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include some of Holocene age. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions.
Ubinas Information from the Global Volcanism Program
Additional Reports of Volcanic Activity by Country
The following websites have frequently updated activity reports on volcanoes in addition to those that meet the criteria for inclusion in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report. The websites are organized by country and are maintained by various agencies.